8 May 2021 in Dossier Deep Sea Mining, Industry


Amsterdam, December 1942. Despite the harsh winter conditions and the continuing war, this one is a celebration day. SS officer Pieter Schelte Heerema gets married, only happy faces around him. He does a good job: he compiles the lists of the Dutch who are deported to Eastern Europe to work as slaves in the Führer’s factories[1], and by the end of the war he already has solid plans in mind – his with skill and patience established business in Venezuela, a petroleum products trading company grown in the shadow of the National Socialist Party, awaits him.

A year later, as the Allies landed in Normandy, he changed his shirt and (apparently) worked with the Dutch resistance for a time. In 1944, he fled and went into hiding in Switzerland, where he was arrested on July 25, 1946 and sentenced to three years in prison due to his Nazi past[2]. He was then released in early November 1946[3]. He fled with his family (his wife and the first two children) to Maracaibo and began a new life there[4].

Pieter Schelte, as this happens, still doesn’t know that his small business, with him at the helm and then his children, is emerging as one of the most important petroleum engineering groups in the world; he will be able to keep the flame of Nazism in the hearts of many Europeans and, at the beginning of the 21st century, thanks to the funding of political parties and newspapers, to place his company at the forefront of one of the most important projects of destruction in the history of the planet: mining and industrial exploitation of the seabed. And all this without ever having denied his own National Socialist ideology[5].

The German resurrection after 1918

The devastation of the city and the country of Armentières after the German withdrawal in 1918[6]

One of the main reasons for Germany’s defeat in WWI was certainly the fact that no one could predict how much the conflict would cost in terms of weapons, ammunition, food, fuel, pharmaceuticals, destruction of infrastructure, agriculture and industry[7]. Germany was completely dependent on international trade for all basic needs, so the British and French allies, especially from 1916, with a maritime blockade off the Gibraltar Canal, forced Austria and l Germany to starve, to freeze, to get up with bare hands[8].

During the years of preparation for WWII, the Nazi hierarchs meticulously prepared to prevent this, and to that end: a) They united the entire chemical industry under one cartel and directly under one industrial group (IG Farben: which included what we know today as Bayer BASF, Höchst, AGFA and some small businesses[9]); b) Establishment of an industrial and commercial participation in Basel – in a neutral country, first called IG Chemie, with a capital of CHF 290 million (the largest in the world) then, without proof of the link with IG Farben, named Interhandel AG[10] – a company whose efficiency was so high that for more than half a century after the war it was impossible to know how it operated, what properties it owned, how much money it had spent and how make[11].

At the same time, all the economic, financial, industrial and commercial forces of National Socialist Germany were striving to create companies abroad (especially in Africa, South America and the Middle East) which would have could deal with it in the event of a new conflict – civilians and also the German army during the war[12]. Interhandel in Basel was mainly operated by a small local bank, Eduard Greutert & Cie. AG Basel[13], which, after having changed its name several times and having been acquired by a Swiss family, is now called Baumann & Cie. KmG[14].

The Eduard-Greutert-Bank was founded by Hermann Schmitz (who was also the founder of IG Farben[15] and theorist of the need to maintain a totalitarian party in Germany[16]), head of the multinational industry Metallgesellschaft, which was the first group to implement the system of tax havens and invented offshore finance, then became the main lever, through which the whole economic system of the NSDAP worked[17], especially in the complex task of obtaining fuel, mechanical parts and minerals necessary for the military industry[18].

The concentration of industrial, banking and commercial efforts on a single project, led by the open interference of the NSDAP in all economic activities, coordinated with the aim of bringing Germany above the level of the victorious nations in 1918, has produced phenomenal results – and in fact the Allies really noticed this growth because the official data, which was spread over a thousand offshore units, was only known to German hierarchies[19]. Compared to the start of World War I, the purchasing power of every German citizen had increased by 55.4% in 1937 – despite the vertical collapse of the 1929 crisis[20]. After that, shortly before World War II, growth will exceed 10% per year, while industrial production between 1936 and 1939 will increase on average by more than 16% per year, while the remaining indicators will only grow by more than 4.5%[21].

The aristocratic model of the Dutch industrial elite

Winter 1938; Prince Bernard and Princess Juliana of Holland (left) leave the old Tivoli theater in Utrecht after a concert with the elite of industry and the national aristocracy. In front of everyone, on the right, Frits Fentener Von Vlissingen[22]

The development of Dutch industry and finance is very similar to that of Germany and results from the agreement of all the major coal producers who founded SHV Steenkolen Handels-Vereeniging in 1896[23], which is still one of the largest Dutch industries. Instead of focusing on chemicals like IG Farben’s partners, with German giants Thyssen, Krupp and Haniel, it was all linked to Rhine trade, energy and steel[24].

Pieter Schelte Heerema emigrated very young to Maracaibo in Venezuela. After studying maritime engineering in Delft, he accepted a mission at NMH Nederlandse Maatschappij voor Havenwerken in 1931, which allowed him to travel around the world: Portugal, Canary Islands, Persia, Venezuela – where he decided to stay and to work for Hidraulica Venezolana SA[25]: a company which worked for Dutch, British and North American oil companies[26] and, after the war, followed the bankruptcy of Banco Germánico del Sur América (an Argentinian bank of Dresdner Bank[27]) and of Deutsche Überseebank (active on behalf of Deutsche Bank throughout South America[28]) was overwhelmed.

At the end of the war, after a few months in prison (due to his SS activity) in Switzerland, he returned to Maracaibo, where, thanks to the money he mysteriously had in Venezuela, he founded his company of engineering (HCM Heerema Marine Contractors) and thanks the support of 1,500 Nazi officers and Wehrmacht soldiers, who fled occupied Germany and, thanks to the Heerema Group, made a living in naval and oil technology in America from South[29].

Heerema holds the most advanced patents on construction systems for oil rigs and submarine pipelines that will see him return to the Netherlands in just 15 years as a billionaire at the forefront of one of the industries. most advanced in the world[30]. Upon his return he was a respected and honored member of the Dutch industrial aristocracy: in 1963 he and Jan Maria Fehmers founded the first private Dutch television station which broadcast from a small island on a pirate station[31]. Pieter Schelte opens an office in Wassenaar, a coastal town between The Hague and Amsterdam, and builds a villa next to that of the owners of the SHV group, the Fentener Von Vlissingen family[32].

This Fentener Von Vlissingen family[33] will work closely with the German Government during WWII and will also represent them on some boards of directors in Switzerland, such as that of the EiBa Bank[34], which ended the conflict, with Interhandel[35], Deutsche Länderbank[36] (controlled by IG Farben, Interhandel and Eduard Greutert & Cie. [37]) Is taken over by the SBG Schweizerische Bankggesellschaft[38], so that SBG, in this way, passed overnight from a small local bank (under the name of UBS) to the largest bank in Switzerland and one of the five largest in Europe[39].

Maracaibo beach in 1944, devastated by drilling by Shell and other oil companies, making Venezuela the second largest oil producer in the world[40]

SHV and the Fentener Von Vlissingen family still belong to the Dutch economic aristocracy: a small group of families all related to each other[41]. The Heerema family also had something to do with them during WWII – for example through Cees De Bruin, one of the patriarchs of the SHV von Fentener Von Vlissingen, who worked with the Heerema group[42], or Jan Marie Fehmers , who ran the owned Jewish bank Teixeira de Mattos after being “aryanized”[43] and immediately after the war was embroiled in a major scandal with SHV and Heerema[44].

The ties between the old Dutch industrial aristocracy and the survivors of those who led the Nazi economic boom developed and solidified after the end of World War II. One of the great German billionaires of the 20th century, the founder of the Metro supermarket chain, former SS sergeant Otto Beisheim[45], founded the alliance between Metro and SHV Holdings in the Netherlands in 1967 and gave birth to the group Makro[46] – which has been since 1972 is mainly present in Venezuela[47], where SHV Holdings and Pieter Schelte Heerema had already worked together before the conflict[48].

Solidarity accompanied by great loyalty: before the start of the war, Frits Fentener Von Vlissingen, in his role as international banker, helped to hide German and Dutch assets (which he considered as one country) in the coffers of banks then unknown on the Caribbean islands: national tax havens (Sint Maarten, Bonaire, Aruba, etc.), where they promoted a system of false invoicing which, from 1939 to 1946, made it possible to hide billions of dollars which, after the wind of reprisals, they were available to the Germans and the Dutch who, together with SHV Holdings, fled Europe and resumed their entrepreneurial adventure in Venezuela and Uruguay[49]. The billions of dollars were the share that the dictator Juan Vicente Gómez had paid to all those traders who had co-financed the exploitation of these fields by the state after the discovery of the large oil fields of the Maracaibo Sea[50].

Maracaibo 1948: the birth of Heerema Marine Contractors

The expansion of the presence of the foreign organization NSDAP in Venezuela at the time of the overthrow of the local dictatorship in 1942, when these activities were banned[51]

In almost all cases, these ties have nothing to do with politics other than the fact that these families collaborated with Nazism in the 1930s and 1940s out of opportunism or necessity[52]. In almost all cases there is nothing ideological and after the war there will remain only the embarrassment and the will be the past to be forgotten as soon as possible, remaining supported by the new industrial and commercial partners from Europe and North America[53].

As for Maracaibo, the Germans have been settling there with industrial and commercial companies since the beginning of the 19th century[54] and in 1889 inaugurated the exclusive German-Venezuelan club, which brings together the main importers and exporters of the homeland[55]. In the 1920s and 1930s, due to the steady increase in the number of immigrants and the open support of the Berlin government, a decision by dictator Juan Vicente Gómez opened a German school in Caracas and one in Maracaibo[56].

After the dictator’s death, however, Veneuzela will openly act against the Nazis, clubs and schools will be closed[57], and regime-side traders such as Pieter Schelte Heerema will flee and return to Europe[58]. What remains are the executives of the NS secret service founded in Maracaibo in November 1933[59], the foreign organization of the NSDAP, whose Venezuelan adviser is Arnold de Margerie, a director of the Bayer group in Maracaibo[60], who continues to deal with business of those who come to Europe have returned and perhaps, like Heerema, have positions at the front[61].

The fact that there is money is a fact: Pieter Schelte Heerema, who arrived secretly and penniless in Maracaibo, in 1948 founded a construction company specializing in the construction and installation of drilling platforms for the petroleum industry[62]. Expensive stuff. Business is going well, as Heerema has an invention up its sleeve that improves the base of support for oil rigs in adverse weather conditions and makes its product unbeatable[63].

Over the next 12 years, he installed around 100 drilling and production platforms in Lake Maracaibo and the Caribbean, as well as a significant number of concrete piers, docks and bridges around the world[64]. After that, thanks to the quality of his products, he founded HCM Heerema Marine Contractors and started building the platforms in the deep and stormy North Sea[65], where single-hull cranes were introduced which inspired engineers to design larger modules, reducing working hours. work at sea will be considerably reduced[66].

Due to the hazardous nature of the facilities, HCM has experienced very few accidents, the most famous of which was recently a contract with the multinational oil company Chevron in 2014. HCM is to build a maritime drilling platform approximately 350 km away. south of New Orleans: The project called “Big Foot” is to reach oil reserves on the seabed, 1580 meters from the surface[67]. Sixteen steel cables or “tendons” attached to floating modules and held in place by 12 screws ensure the stability of the infrastructure[68].

Heerema supplies and assembles some of these parts: on May 29, 2014, the tendons were connected, but 9 of these 16 will sink before being repaired, so the maritime force will bring back the other 7 defective. As a result of an analysis, Heerema and its contractors are forced to pay Chevron fines of approximately $ 500 million[69]. A serious accident, but it can happen, especially if you’re a company that assembles and controls tens of thousands of these systems around the world – and no one has been hurt anyway.

The founder’s heritage, the news of the second generation

Pieter Schelte Heerema at 69 in 1978[70]

The Heerema family continued to be openly right-wing extremists compared to dozens of other capitalists who believed in Adolf Hitler during the Nazi years and worked with the regime. In the last years of his life, Pieter Schelte Heerema, who never hid the fact that he had not changed his mind about his youth relationships[71], began funding the JBS John Birch Society[72]. It is an American anti-Communist organization founded in 1958 by confectionery entrepreneur Robert W. Welch Jr.[73] and backed by businessmen who thought Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy’s witch hunts were too sweet[74].

JBS, which is still active and affiliated with other extremist organizations and figures such as Donald Trump, QAnon, Leo Burnett and his American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) [75] lobby, publishes books, magazines and documentaries around the world and leads an activist movement made up of cells that exist in many cities across the United States[76].

In the Netherlands there is traditionally a large group of JBS followers (Lange Frans, Willem Engel, Alex Jones, Evert Smit, Frank van Buren, Henk Berg, Joop L. van Baaren) who translate articles published in America ( or their own handwriting) and publish in the Nederlands Dagblad[77] and today, in accordance with QAnon’s conspiracy theories, are preparing to form radicalized cells and even threaten (according to Dutch experts) demonstrative actions bordering on terrorism[78].

In the 1970s, a Dutch political formation emerged from this American group, the LCN (Libertarisch Centrum Nederland[79]), which was founded, among others, by an entrepreneur named Robert Jan Doorn with a history of tax evasion[80]. The two main donors to LCN were JBS boss Fred Koch of Koch Industries[81] and Pieter Schelte Heerema[82]. Leading executives include former JBS ideologues Frank van Buren and Henk Berg, who also collect private contributions through the Christian Opinion Building Institute Foundation. After the death (1981) of Pieter Schelte Heerema, this foundation received significant start-up capital which was sufficient to finance the publication of the neo-fascist magazine “West Magazine” for a few years[83].

Pieter Schelte’s first son Edward served in the LCN, funded the magazine even after his father’s death, and was a member of the founding committee of Stichting D-Zone Marketing, which still collects public contributions to fund campaigns. right-wing politicians in the Netherlands[84]. Edward still supports an anti-Semitic and racist formation, the FvD Forum voor Democratie, whose director Carola Dieudonné Edward Heeremas is personal assistant to the head of Allseas[85]. This second group, parallel to HCM, was founded in Switzerland in 1985 and specializes in a new extremely technological and advanced product: a dynamic system for placing submarine pipelines[86], which for the first time can accept the construction of long tens of thousands of pipelines from kilometers and places in enormous depths of the sea[87].

The catamaran Pioneering Spirit (Allseas had to change its original name to Pieter Schelte because the founder was convicted of his Nazi past), the purpose of which is to lay fixed infrastructure and pipelines on the seabed. This ship is one of the largest in the world: 380 meters long, 125 meters wide and 55 meters high – almost twice the size of one of the large cruise ships in circulation today[88]

Allseas will thus become one of the most sought-after partners of the consortia that have received licenses in the Clarion Clipperton area in the depths of the Pacific Ocean[89]: in June 2019 Allseas and its main industrial partners (International Seabed Authority of Michael W. Lodge, Canadian company DeepGreen Metals Inc. Vancouver, led by Australian manager Gerard Barron) has jointly signed a $ 150 million contract with Macquarie Capital and Fearnley Securities. The goal is to enable Allseas to provide DeepGreen with the fixed and mobile infrastructure needed to start dredging the ocean by 2023[90].

This was only the first contract: today, after the merger of DeepGreen with The Metals Company, Allseas (together with the Maersk group[91]) is involved in several seabed exploitation projects of the new multinational industry[92]. Finally, in June 2020, Allseas decided to apply for the management of its own user license, which is owned by Blue Minerals Jamaica Ltd. Kingston[93], which depends on Blue Minerals Switzerland SA, whose head office is located in the Swiss offices of the Allseas group[94].

It’s the same with the industry: technological advancements, there are always new challenges and new projects, but some things stay as they were. The National Socialist movement as it was born was openly anti-Semitic, anti-Communist (therefore against the collectivization of property) and focused on race as an ideal value and bond: in short, the citizen must serve the country and the race, not his own selfishness[95]. But that’s exactly what the base didn’t necessarily want at the end of WWI. The success of the NSDAP dates back to the entry of IG Farben and the big bankers and industrialists in 1929 after the call of Hermann Schmitz[96].

Since 1931, bankers and industrialists have regained much of the power within the NSDAP, also because Hitler and his most loyal employees have been unable to resolve the problems of the structural crisis in the economy[97]. On January 26, 1932, Adolf Hitler gave an important speech to the Düsseldorf Industry Club and accepted the terms of the German economic aristocracy – the same economic aristocracy, from the chairman of Deutsche Bank Hermann Abs to the bosses of Bayer, BASF and the other big chemical industries, which will also emerge from the Nuremberg trials almost unscathed[98].

All of Germany’s economic and productive forces are channeled to prepare for and win the war. All profits remain in the hands of a small elite of tycoons who, in addition to funding the military, invest a large portion of the income in accelerating scientific and technological progress. If the military is to win the war on the ground, the industry must win the war by offering the best products at the best prices in the world – and this principle is as relevant today as it was in 1929. It serves no purpose. nothing to play with ideology. Questions. National Socialism is (fortunately) dead, but this idea of ​​industrial aristocracy is more alive than ever.


[1] https://www.parlement.com/id/vg09ll1bfly6/a_h_w_hacke ; https://italiawiki.com/pages/commissario-del-re/jan-de-quay-corso-di-vita-premi-archivi-link-esterno.html ; https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/thema/Departement%20van%20Sociale%20Zaken

[2] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[3] 2015.01.24 Biography Pieter Schelte Heerema

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[6] https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/erster-weltkrieg

[7] https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/erster-weltkrieg/kriegsverlauf/material ; https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/167694/Erster-Weltkrieg-1914-1918-Hunger-und-Mangel-in-der-Heimat ; https://www.lpb-bw.de/geschichte-ersterweltkrieg000

[8] https://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/geschichte-diese-folgen-hatte-der-erste-weltkrieg-1.4198466

[9] http://www.wollheim-memorial.de/files/999/original/pdf_Karl_Heinz_Roth_Die_Geschichte_der_IG_Farbenindustrie_AG_von_der_Gruendung_bis_zum_Ende_der_Weimarer_Republik.pdf ; Joseph Borkin, “Die unheilige Allianz der IG Farben“, Campus Verlag, Frankfurt 1975; Charles Higham, “Trading with the Enemy. An exposé of the Nazi-American money plot 1933–1949”, Delacorte, New York 1983; http://www.profit-over-life.org/international/deutsch/guide/index_892.html ; http://webopac.hwwa.de/PresseMappe20E/Digiview_MID.cfm?mid=F011650 ; https://www1.wdr.de/radio/wdr5/sendungen/zeitzeichen/ig-farben-100.html

[10] https://www.uek.ch/de/schlussbericht/Publikationen/Zusammenfassungenpdf/02d.pdf ; https://dodis.ch/R439 ; https://dodis.ch/9266

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[12] Alan Milward, “War, Economy and Society 1939–1945”, University of California Press, Sacramento 1977; Dietrich Eichholtz, “Geschichte der deutschen Kriegswirtschaft 1939–1945“, KG Saur Verlag, München, 2011; https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/der-zweite-weltkrieg/industrie-und-wirtschaft.html ; https://www.dhm.de/lemo/kapitel/ns-regime/industrie-und-wirtschaft.html ; https://www.100.bmwi.de/BMWI100/Navigation/DE/Meilenstein-04/1933-1945.html

[13] https://www.uek.ch/de/schlussbericht/Publikationen/Zusammenfassungen/02interhandel.htm

[14] https://www.baumann-banquiers.ch/de/baumann-cie/index.php

[15] https://www.uek.ch/de/schlussbericht/Publikationen/Zusammenfassungen/02interhandel.htm

[16] Hermann Schmitz, „Deutschlands einzige Rettung“, HaDek Verlag, Hannover 1931

[17] Robert Liefmann, „Beteiligungs- und Finanzierungsgesellschaften“, Fischer, Jena 1913; Robert Liefmann, „Kartelle, Konzerne und Trusts“, E.H. Moritz, Stuttgart 1923

[18] Robert Liefmann, „Mineralölwirtschaft“, Ferdinand Hirt Verlag, Breslau 1927

[19] Dietrich Eichholtz, “Geschichte der deutschen Kriegswirtschaft 1939–1945“, KG Saur Verlag, München, 2011

[20] Thomas Rahlf, „Deutschland in Daten“, in „Zeitreihen zur historischen Statistik“, Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bonn 2015, page 191

[21] Thomas Rahlf, „Deutschland in Daten“, in „Zeitreihen zur historischen Statistik“, Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bonn 2015, page 195

[22] https://www.duic.nl/algemeen/gemeente-utrecht-gaat-kijken-naar-oorlogsverleden-van-frits-fentener-van-vlissingen/

[23] https://annualreport.shv.nl/2020

[24] https://www.shv.nl/sites/default/files/usercontent/1906/SHV%20Annual%20Report%202018.pdf, page 37

[25] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[26] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[27] Nuria Puig Raposo, Adoración Álvaro Moya, “¿Misión imposible?: La expropiación de las empresas alemanas enEspaña (1945-1975)”, in “Investigaciones de historia economica” n°7/2007, Asociación Española de Historia Económica, Madrid 2007, pages 101-130

[28] Paul Wallich, „Banco Alemán Transatlántico, Eine Reise durch Südamerika“, Hase & Koehler Verlag, Mainz 1986

[29] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[30] https://hmc.heerema.com/about/history ; https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[31] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[32] 2018.08.24 Wassenaar aan het water

[33] https://en.google-info.org/21926131/1/frits-fentener-van-vlissingen-1882.html

[34] https://hls-dhs-dss.ch/de/articles/042023/2004-08-27/

[35] https://www.dodis.ch/temporary-cache/public/pdf/9000/dodis-9266.pdf ; https://www.dodis.ch/temporary-cache/public/pdf/14000/dodis-14697-a.pdf ; https://www.uek.ch/de/schlussbericht/Publikationen/Zusammenfassungenpdf/02d.pdf

[36] http://magazin.spiegel.de/EpubDelivery/spiegel/pdf/13518596

[37] Volker Koop, „Das schmutzige Vermögen. Das Dritte Reich, die I.G. Farben und die Schweiz„, Verlag Siedler, München 2005

[38] https://www.jstor.org/stable/20689761?seq=1

[39] Gian Trepp, Res Strehle, Barbara Weyermann, “Ganz oben: 125 Jahre SBG“, Limmat Verlag, Zürich 1987

[40] Franklin Tugwell, „The politics of oil in Venezuela”, Stanford University Press, Stanford CA 1975; https://www.amazon.com/Photo-Western-Venezuela-Maracaibo-approximately/dp/B06WLQPYNL

[41] Jos Van Hezeweijk, „Die nieuwe Elite van Nederland”, Uitgeverij Balans, Amsterdam 2003, pages 64-87

[42] Jos Van Hezeweijk, „Die nieuwe Elite van Nederland”, Uitgeverij Balans, Amsterdam 2003, pages 87-88

[43] https://www.groene.nl/artikel/de-geyle-hoer-van-de-geldzucht

[44] Jos Van Hezeweijk, „Die nieuwe Elite van Nederland”, Uitgeverij Balans, Amsterdam 2003, pages 87-88 https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teixeira_de_Mattos_(bank)

[45] Joachim Scholtyseck, „Otto Beisheim: Jugend, Soldatemzeit und Entwicklung zum Handelspionier“, Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn 2020

[46] https://dewiki.de/Lexikon/Metro_Deutschland#Geschichte

[47] https://www.makro.com.ve/nosotros/

[48] https://www.makro.com.ve/nuestro-origen/

[49] 2013.05.01 Doorvoerhaven voor geld; Nederland belastingparadijs

[50] https://www.fluter.de/wirtschaftliche-geschichte-venezuelas

[51] https://vicentequintero.medium.com/los-nazis-deportados-de-venezuela-durante-la-segunda-guerra-mundial-vicente-quintero-pr%C3%ADncipe-ecb212142d2b

[52] https://www.welt.de/kultur/history/article106243176/Die-Niederlande-zwischen-Kollaboration-und-Hunger.html ; https://www.uni-muenster.de/NiederlandeNet/nl-wissen/geschichte/besatzung/widerstand.html

[53] https://www.uni-muenster.de/imperia/md/content/hausderniederlande/zentrum/projekte/niederlandenet/nl-info/wielenga_erinnerung.pdf

[54] https://de.wikisource.org/wiki/Am_See_von_Maracaibo

[55] https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/304709233.pdf

[56] https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/304709233.pdf

[57] https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-euv/frontdoor/deliver/index/docId/60/file/Waibel_Jens.pdf, page 348

[58] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[59] https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-euv/frontdoor/deliver/index/docId/60/file/Waibel_Jens.pdf, page 49

[60] Frank-Rutger Hausmann, “Ernst-Wilhelm Bohle: Gauleiter im Dienst von Partei und Staat“, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2009, page 225;

[61] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[62] https://higs.heerema.com/about/history

[63] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[64] https://higs.heerema.com/about/history

[65] https://higs.heerema.com/about/history

[66] https://higs.heerema.com/about/history

[67] 2018.12.27 Lloyd’s Syndicate 457 v. Floatec LLC, United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division

[68] 2018.12.27 Lloyd’s Syndicate 457 v. Floatec LLC, United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division

[69] 2018.12.27 Lloyd’s Syndicate 457 v. Floatec LLC, United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division

[70] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[71] https://www.tracesofwar.nl/articles/4112/Heerema-Pieter-Schelte.htm?c=gw

[72] https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/john-birch-society-founded

[73] https://theconversation.com/the-john-birch-society-is-still-influencing-american-politics-60-years-after-its-founding-107925

[74] Max Blumenthal, “Republican Gomorrah : inside the movement that shattered the party”, NY Nation Books, New York 2010, page 332; Clive Webb, “Rabble rousers: the American far right in the civil rights era”, University of Georgia Press, Athens GA 2010

[75] https://thenewamerican.com/is-trumpism-really-bircherism/ ; https://www.huffpost.com/entry/john-birch-society_b_958207

[76] https://theconversation.com/the-john-birch-society-is-still-influencing-american-politics-60-years-after-its-founding-107925

[77] https://www.groene.nl/artikel/dat-is-allemaal-bewezen;  https://www.nd.nl/

[78] https://www.uu.nl/nieuws/van-scherm-naar-straat-protesterende-burgers-in-nederland ; https://www.31mag.nl/qanon-e-negazionisti-covid-i-complottisti-in-olanda-si-stanno-radicalizzando/

[79] Nel 1993 Libertarian Party (De Libertarische Partij) è stata fondata sulle basi di LCN, see also: https://dnpp.nl/pp/libertarische-partij-lp

[80] https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Jan_Doorn

[81] https://theconversation.com/the-john-birch-society-is-still-influencing-american-politics-60-years-after-its-founding-107925

[82] https://www.groene.nl/artikel/dat-is-allemaal-bewezen

[83] Research, The American roots of conspiracy thinking, ‘That has all been proven’, see also https://www.groene.nl/artikel/dat-is-allemaal-bewezen

[84] Research, The American roots of conspiracy thinking, ‘That has all been proven’, see also https://www.groene.nl/artikel/dat-is-allemaal-bewezen

[85] https://kafka.nl/carola-dieudonne-kandidaat-forum-voor-democratie/

[86] https://allseas.com/company/history/

[87] https://allseas.com/activities/pipelines-and-subsea/subsea-installation/

[88] https://www.boschrexroth.com/it/it/scenari-e-tendenze/competenze/development-and-construction-of-the-pioneering-spirit ; https://www.vesselfinder.com/it/vessels/PIONEERING-SPIRIT-IMO-9593505-MMSI-249110000 ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yzl2fEaUNY

[89] https://www.glistatigenerali.com/inquinamento_materie-prime/i-fondali-oceanici-la-nuova-frontiera-dellautodistruttivita-umana/ ; https://www.glistatigenerali.com/infrastrutture_inquinamento/basi-militari-e-miniere-il-volto-nuovo-dei-fondali-oceanici/

[90] https://www.offshore-energy.biz/deepgreen-and-allseas-form-seafloor-mining-alliance/

[91] https://www.bairdmaritime.com/work-boat-world/offshore-world/undersea-mining/column-mining-the-seabed-deepgreen-allseas-maersk-and-the-vitoria-10000-plus-equinor-and-bill-gates-for-good-measure-offshore-accounts/ ; https://www.bairdmaritime.com/work-boat-world/offshore-world/column-ocean-mining-deepgreen-to-list-and-become-the-metals-company-as-major-car-makers-and-wwf-press-for-moratorium-on-seabed-mineral-extraction-offshore-accounts/

[92] https://deep.green/allseas-acquires-ship-for-deep-sea-polymetallic-nodule-collection-in-partnership-with-deepgreen/ ; https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/deepgreen-and-allseas-team-up-on-seafloor-mining

[93] https://www.isa.org.jm/news/blue-minerals-jamaica-ltd-applies-exploration-contract-isa-polymetallic-nodules-pacific-ocean

[94] Blue Minerals Switzerland SA Châtel-St-Denis; Allseas Group SA Châtel-Saint-Denis

[95] Hauke Janssen, „Nationalökonomie und Nationalsozialismus: Die deutsche Wirtschaftslehre in den dreißiger Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts“, in „Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschsprachigen Ökonomie“, Band 10, Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg 2009, page 119

[96] Hermann Schmitz, „Deutschlands einzige Rettung“, HaDek Verlag, Hannover 1931, Adolf Hitler, „Der Weg zum Wiederaufstieg“, Bruckmann, München 1927

[97] http://www.zum.de/psm/pdf/ksg45.pdf, pages 117-119

[98] http://www.zum.de/psm/pdf/ksg45.pdf, pages 119-121

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