26 January 2021 in Industry


Denizli is a very difficult city after the First World War. A city of shepherds and craftsmen, lashed by the winter cold and starved to death by the agriculture of the landowners made of sweat, blood and humiliation. A mafia clan called Yiğitbaşı is responsible: a clan that grew up with smuggling, kidnapping and animal theft and emerged from the guild of traders who each chose their leader called Yiğitbaşı who governs and prices, business licenses and that of the cultivation of cereals, as well as the right to have a coffee at the bar in his own shop (and therefore to be a man of respect). In short, someone who decides on the life and death of his fellow citizens[1].

State power in the sad and backward provinces of the Anatolian plateau had been swept away by the collapse of the Ottoman Empire: first, the Italians had expelled the Turks from Libya[2] in 1911 (one of the reasons for which Erdoğan at the beginning of the war economically and militarily supported the rebels of Haftar and not of Al-Sarraj)[3], the colonies on European soil were lost after the defeat of the Balkan war[4]. After all, Turkey had decided to go to war alongside the Germans and the Austrians, and it was the straw that broke the camel’s back: military defeat, economic and administrative collapse, hunger and misery[5].

In this situation, the nostalgic have no choice between conforming or fighting as the secular republic of Turkey arose from the ashes of empire in every depressed region of the country. There were two families in Denizli who survived the collapse – two families with nearly 500 years of aristocratic rule: the Erdoğan Atabek and the Karasungur[6]. Their descendants after the Second World War will be those of revenge, of banditry, of the war against the Yiğitbaşı. A never-ending war, which now, after these families have taken power all over Turkey, no longer has only Anatolia as a theater, but the whole world.

And the world reacts timidly. On December 10, 2020, the European Union imposed new sanctions against Turkey[7], followed by US[8] sanctions. The reasons are well known: Erdoğan’s regime, which has been shaken by the economic crisis (sharp rise in inflation, fall in the value of the Turkish lira, explosion in unemployment figures[9]), as well as seven years of deep public discontent[10], which was caused by the violence and the arrest of journalists and critics were stifled[11], retaliate by attacking, occupy the Mediterranean with the navy to drill for oil near Greek territorial waters[12] and support the Azerbaijani invasion of Nagorno-Karabakh in everything but secrecy[13].

The economic crisis has only exacerbated and worsened a situation that the AKP has pursued for more than twenty years, and since the beginning the Islamization of the state, the abolition of democracy, the independence of journalism and justice as well as secular reforms and aimed at establishing a dynasty[14] – all without the slightest idea of ​​how to solve the economic problems; using the state as a cornucopia to satisfy the appetites of the dictator and his clan; by pursuing an aggressive foreign policy in order, through blackmail, to achieve the objective of penetrating the deviations from a multilateral agreement signed over the past 70 years[15].

From Denizli to the big international scene: the long journey of the Atasay Kamer

Horoz Heykeli – The rooster’s statue, the most famous monument in Denizli

The fate of man is his character, wrote Heraclitus[16], and history shows it in all its endless pages. Fate in particular writes extraordinary biographies, which perhaps start from a coincidence which is the result of a coincidence: how could a dynasty of world significance be born in a remote border village on the infinite plateau of the center of Turkey? We are talking about Denizli[17], a city bathed by the meander and historically known as Greek and Roman colonies (the famous Laodicea, also mentioned by Cicero and Tacitus, the base of Hadrian’s conquests in Asia Minor, of which the ruins are only 6 km from Denizli away[18]) then in the Middle Ages, becomes the seat of the medieval principality of Beylikat of Ladik[19] of Anatolia.

Over the centuries, Denizli has become a province known to host certain monumental sites, human heritage like Hierapolis[20] and Pamukkale, and more particularly more recently for being the birthplace of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[21], the current President of Turkey. Fate sought him up there on this distant plateau, where he grew up with those who later became his “men in the shadows“, his most trusted friends, whose names are perhaps unknown. from most countries of the world, but who are perhaps more famous in Turkey than President Erdoğan himself: Atasay and Cihan Kamer[22].

As Atasay Kamer was born[23], ten years before Erdoğan (1941), in the country around Denizli, hunger, cold and the blackest misery reigned in this region. The young Atasay was immediately known for his charisma and his ability to build a career in the local underworld. Already in his youth, he specialized in the smuggling and counterfeiting of jewelry[24]: he is the eldest son of the mafia clan leader of Denizli province and grew up in the shadow of Islamic fundamentalism[25] – Atasay is in conflict with the father of the motherland, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, has always considered Islam as the only means of salvation for the fate of Turkey[26].

Atasay Kamer teaches his son Cihan exactly these two moral principles: to be a cunning, ruthless and charismatic criminal, to be a warrior of Allah, to always put the interests of the clan and the family first[27]. Today, having reached old age and replaced by his son at the head of the family empire, Atasay Kamer seeks only peace and tranquility, to the point that he amazes by his interviews in which he even says that “the possession is fire”- something that sounds downright surreal[28] from the mouth of this old mafia boss.

The wealth of the clan was born in the 1970s: there is a real boom in the trade of gold and jewelry in Turkey, which, instead of the very low Turkish lira, serves as a refuge for tens of thousands of emigrants who seek to France and Germany to emigrate after work – especially the Kurds, trapped by international agreements in a nation that sees them as enemies and wants to exterminate them[29]. You run away from misery, hunger, cold and ethnic persecution and sell whatever you have. For unscrupulous people like Atasay and later his son Cihan, this phenomenon represents a gold mine: they buy at bargain prices and resell for double or triple the price[30].

A great friendship for life: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (left) and Cihan Kamer (right)[31]

Atasay Kamer does not start from scratch[32]: in the 1930s, his father Haci Mustafa Kamer[33] created the jeweler Kamer and traded in fine jewelry and curtains[34]. At the time, Atasay was a young man in his twenties eager to show off his skills to both his father and colleagues. According to legend, he once drove an old Opel full of contraband jewelry to Switzerland and was arrested by border police at the Turkish border[35].

But these are trivialities and had no consequences: Atasay Jewelry is one of the world’s top ten companies in the industry with a production capacity of around 20 tons and 107 branches around the world as well as a factory in Turkey more than 10,000 square meters[36]. A true empire[37], especially since the Kamers founded Asgold and Atagold[38] in 1985, who had specialized in trading gold and gold bars, who also exported to Saudi Arabia and opened branches. wherever they still smuggled and clans organized historical crime connections[39].

Atasay’s idea is clear: we have to get out of the immediate proximity of Anatolia and develop throughout Europe. For this reason, after the wedding, Atasay decides to relocate the family to Switzerland and the businesses resulting from the expansion of Atasay Jewelry, Cihan’s son[40] and the other members of the family clan[41] – as tradition dictates[42]. In addition to Atasay and Cihan Kamer, the names of Cigdem Kamer and Simay Kamer[43] have been on the organization chart for decades. But also that of Erdoğan. Yes, exactly that Erdoğan.

A golden springboard for the new sultan

Official photos of the wedding between one of Tayyip Erdoğan’s daughters, Sumeyye, and Selçuk Bayraktar, the engineer who, with government funding, is building the first armed drones for the Turkish military. Photo shows Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif, former Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, Army Chief of Staff Hulusi Akar and former Turkish President Abdullah Gül. The wedding was celebrated by the mayor of Istanbul, Kadir Topbaş[44]

As he takes the stage, Tayyip Erdoğan is not yet the president of the country, but just a young entrepreneur with a passion for politics: he and Atasay have known each other since Tayyip started school and Atasay was his point of reference. Later, when Erdoğan finishes compulsory school, Atasay Kamer hires him and teaches him the trade of jeweler, including official registration with the Istanbul Chamber of Jewelry (IKO): Tayyip is registered as “seller of jewelry” on April 16, 1993 – until February 25, 1994 (registration number 068677)[45]. Then the future president resigned because he was elected mayor of the Istanbul metropolitan area on March 27, 1994[46].

Atasay’s investment in human capital is no coincidence, but inspired by the concept of young Kamer’s family clan, which always selects relatives or people from Denizli families who have been linked for generations[47]. A clever calculation given that in the 1990s, when the Atasay group was in crisis due to the collapse of the Turkish trade balance [48]and the wave of bankruptcies (which propelled the bourgeoisie into crisis due to the collapse of the national real estate and jewelry market) – in addition, because international smuggling was in danger due to new European laws and the increased use of police forces[49], so it’s Tayyip Erdoğan, a young politician who was rampant with his hands in various international treaties, which saved the Kamer family business[50].

The bond between the Erdoğan family and the Kamer family is no longer just a friendship, but turns into a clan[51]: the two are cousins, and over time, on the one hand, the ties grow stronger with child marriages (2015 were Erdoğan and his wife Emine attend the wedding of a son of Cehin and therefore, according to Turkish tradition, they have a status comparable to that of the alleged parents)[52] – and on the other hand with the billionaire sponsorship that the Kamer group grants AKP of Tayyip Erdoğan[53]. As he was elected president, the two families formed a joint company, Atakulche[54], which operates a foreign gold refinery, appointed children and grandchildren as its head, and which is already the subject of international police[55].

The weddings themselves become occasions for consolidating political and business alliances, such as the lavish marriage of Atasay’s daughter, Simar[56], to Ahmet Uras, the son of a mutual friend, Professor Cihan Uras[57]. The wedding will be celebrated by the then Mayor of Istanbul, Kadir Topbaş[58], and the Arabian Nights ceremony will be attended by TürkMedia President Ethem Sancak[59], Deputy Prime Minister Ali Babacan[60], Minister of Economic Affairs Nihat Zeybekçi[61] and the governor of Istanbul are part of Vasip Şahin[62].

It seems obvious that the whole construction of the electricity grid around the regime of Tayyip Erdoğan, as in the monarchical tradition, is based on a careful and coherent marriage strategy. Erdoğan and his wife Emine have four children: two boys (Ahmet Burak and Necmettin Bilal) and two girls (Esra and Sumeyye)[63]. In 2016, the latter married engineer Selçuk Bayraktar[64], the controversial inventor of the Turkish armed drone, which, according to the press, was used illegally with the Azerbaijani army in several countries during the invasion of Artsakh in summer 2020[65].

This is not new: the drone has already been used (illegally) during the civil war in Syria[66] and in the massacres against the Kurdish people[67]. From the start, the drone was discussed a lot, as there were fears that it could be used against individual civilians to illegally fight political opponents of the Erdoğan regime[68] – so much so that one after another, the suppliers of the technology used by Selçuk, by the Bayraktar company and his family company, Baykar Savunma Sanayi (Istanbul[69]), have terminated the supply contracts[70].

Atakulche, the project of the future

August 2020: President Erdoğan writes a marker with a dedication to the drones built by his son-in-law that bombard the cities of Nagorno-Karabakh and the Armenian army that defends them[71]

While everyone in Turkey viewed the Kamer and Erdoğan family businesses as criminal gangs reselling stolen or smuggled gold to fund the arms trade, the president shifted all his political levers to the next generation to try to build the reputation of its own sons and clean the reputation of its partners. He flew to London with his sons and Atasay’s sons to receive the coveted “London Good Delivery Certificate“, which could hardly be obtained without strong political support[72]. Relatives of Erdoğan say the president received the certificate through his personal relationship with then-prime minister Tony Blair, but there are no official sources to confirm the news and life is known to be of a leader is also based on legends that help legitimize his ability to achieve the impossible.

Atakulche was the first Turkish company to receive the coveted LBMA[73] certification despite much controversy. But the discussions are over and the certificate remains, which gives the whole group a patina of seriousness. The Kamer family now truly runs a global empire that invests in gold and commodities around the world[74] and on all major stock exchanges in the world, an industrial and commercial conglomerate made up of over a hundred different companies and represented in a wide variety of industries: from textiles to jewelry, from gold to real estate, from food to tourism, from oil trading to fishing, from the military to pharmacy: today there is no There is no multinational group in Turkey comparable to Atasay / Atakulche, and in some sectors the group has retained a monopoly position, which of course, as long as Erdoğan remains in power, no cartel commission will ever question[75].

When such a level of impunity and power is reached, it is of course best to get involved in charity as well: Cihan Kamer, for example, funded and built the Atasay Kamer Vocational School[76], affiliated with Pamukkale University, in the Çivril district of Denizli; Furthermore, together with his father, Cihan designed and funded a health center in Rize and named it after Erdoğan’s mother, Tenzile[77].

The president is not only grateful but also a business partner: Tayyip Erdoğan owns 20% of the Atasay group[78], and since he became Prime Minister, any industrial or entrepreneurial activity supported by public funds must belong to the Atasay Sons Billal group (whose problems with justice are endless, even with Italian[79]) and Sema or from the hands of the children of Cihan Kamer[80]: Simay, Cigdem and Judy[81].

Today, more than a dozen members of the Erdoğan clan make a living from the gold market in Turkey and Europe[82]. Then there is the billionaire oil trade or financial audit contracts (which indirectly give Erdoğan full supervision and information on relevant economic entities in Turkey) – contracts which are guaranteed by the state and for which every company individual pays election fees to the AKP, so Cihan Kamer has been called “the AKP’s golden man” by critics[83].

For us who live far from Ankara and Istanbul, it sounds like an incredible nightmare: hundreds of properties, billionaire public works contracts and partnerships and collaborations: a seemingly endless list … a few examples: the project Savk Elektrik[84] with entrepreneur Aydinli Omer Bagci, with whom Atasay / Atakulche received permission to import electricity from Iran in 2004 from the Ministry of Energy[85]. After a few months, Cihan founded a new small energy trading company, which was one of the four (37 participants) winners of the tender for the distribution of natural gas from Botas[86] without any guarantees.

The boundaries between what belongs to the state, what belongs to Kamers and what belongs to Erdoğan narrow until they can no longer be distinguished … an example: the villa of Uskudar (Istanbul) where Erdoğan lived belonged to the Kamer Family. then it was taken over by the state (for an amount of several million dollars)[87]. It is still unclear who pays the rent and which companies are based[88].

This discovery was a real bomb in the 1990s, when Erdoğan had just been elected; Today, no one in Turkey pays attention to the fact that the license plate of the car Erdoğan drives bears the company symbol “AK” and, like the private car of the Kamer family, the license plate with the symbol “Presidency of the Council“, symbol reserved for the staff of the Prime Minister[89]. The partnership between the families runs so deep that no one is outraged or surprised when President Erdoğan’s sons, Necmettin Bilal and Sema, receive a special license and public funding to run a chain of jewelry stores and a fast food store in the Turkish airports. open – or when they inaugurate, with Cihan Kamer’s children, the new Hugga restaurant chain[90].

The scoops of the Panama Papers

Fettah Tamince (second from left, hugging her son), alongside President Tayyip Erdoğan (center), celebrates the opening of another Rixos group hotel, which was built with the proceeds of the escape tax of the offshore system of the president and his accomplices[91]

The large number of Atasay companies that have been established in Turkey over the years, and the often illegal origin of their goods and income, has obviously resulted in the establishment of a number of offshore companies in tax havens. It is a change that the entire Turkish economy has undergone and which has become public opinion with the fraudulent bankruptcy of Pamukbank (and the seven-year prison sentence for its president Mehmet Emin Karamehmet[92]) and then the political corruption scandal that started with the Susurluk scandal and the involvement of former Prime Minister Tansu Çiller exploded[93].

Erdoğan’s political career has taken a huge leap forward as a result of these scandals, as the AKP (originally) presented itself as a populist party that would restore honesty[94] – but over the years, in particular after 2013, when several ministers were involved in a corruption scandal[95], turkish citizens realized that things would turn out completely differently from what had been promised.

As ICIJ began to analyze documents stolen from the Panamanian trust company Mossack y Fonseca[96], two such offshore companies were quickly discovered, Universe Ventures Holding Inc. Victoria (Seychelles[97]) and Fair International Capital Ltd. Tortola (Virgin Islands[98]), who opened bank accounts with Crédit Agricole and the Bank of Inter Maritime, both in Geneva, whose beneficiaries were President Erdoğan and his daughter-in-law Sema[99]. These accounts received money via Horizon Investment SA Geneva[100] from the Atagold group, whose shareholders until December 2014 were Cihan Kamer, son of Erdoğan Bilal and wife of Burak’s other son, Sema Erdoğan. As it got too embarrassing, the company was transformed into a public corporation with only one shareholder: Atasay Holding[101].

The only company that has survived this change is the Charitable and Goodwill Foundation SA Panama[102], which Cihan Kamer personally owns and continues to operate. The rest is hidden by a Turkish company of three family friends (Okan Beygo, head of the Beşiktaş[103] tax office, Ms. Burcu Boso, head of the Kozyatağı[104] tax office, Gonca Kayasu, head of the Büyükçekmece[105] tax office), the Rotaforte Reklam Fuar Organizasyon Tanıtıtım Entrepreneur Ticaret[106]. This company closed in 2014. Its assets such as those of Rotaforte Publishing and Rotaforte Uluslararası Fuarcılık will be transferred to another offshore company, United Exhibitions Ltd. Qormi (Malta)[107].

Since 2015, the Kamer and Erdoğan families have hired a person responsible for the expansion, administration and control of a growing offshore area of ​​the financial empire: Fettah Tamince[108], who still manages an impressive number and still unknown tax. companies[109]. He owes his life to the President, who pardoned him when he was about to be arrested on suspicion of being part of a terrorist organization[110]. With his share of the proceeds, Tamince founded a hotel group, Rixos Otelllerin, which is openly sponsored by President Erdoğan[111] – so much so that he and his friend Kamer are suspected of being secret partners of the Rixos group[112].

In addition, ICIJ always analyzes the hundreds of Chinese companies that make up the offshore universe of Denizli’s two friends: it would be exaggeration to list them all here, especially since each of them has a different partner who is foreign to the group. Atasay and these partners are located in an impressive number of different countries: Iraq, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, USA, European Union, Virgin Islands, Panama, Seychelles, Jordan, Mexico, Canada, Russia, Colombia, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg , Uruguay and so on … [113]

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan: a global threat

Turkish and Azerbaijani soldiers shake hands after attack on civilians in Nagorno-Karabakh: an image from Erdoğan’s propaganda that once again shows his muscles to the Turkish people and the international community[114]

When a mafia group takes control of a territory and replaces the state, it is almost impossible to force them to surrender. Erdoğan does not build consensus based on positive facts, but rather terrorizing the proactive part of his people and offering propaganda victories to those who lack the intellectual means to understand what is really going on[115]. As the press discovered money hidden from the tax authorities that the president had used to strengthen his power in Malta and Azerbaijan in 2017, many Turks praised him[116].

The burning humiliations of the years preceding his electoral victory, the political and financial scandals and the constant refusal of the European Union to accept Turkey into the Brussels Confederation, as well as the sanctions which were imposed for the ongoing massacre of Kurdish people, are things of the past. With the deteriorating social and economic situation in Turkey stifled by the brutality of oppression or the success of propaganda, the president does not care about the international community and, thanks to his criminal clan, is organized in such a way as not to not be hurt by the economic crisis[117].

He also has a trump card up his sleeve which works very well: many refugees who come from the Middle East or North Africa and who try to reach the European Union are accommodated in concentration camps on Turkish soil – a measure that Erdoğan uses to blackmail Brussels: leave me alone, or I’ll open the cages and escort them to the border. He can even afford to support opponents of the United Nations-backed Libyan government and deploy Turkish warships across the Mediterranean to frighten everyone[118]. It works.

So that Kamer and Erdoğan continue to run their own mercenary militias and smuggle weapons, cigarettes, prostitution, drugs and illegal immigration all over the Mediterranean: in Libya, Syria, Russia, everywhere[119]. In such a case, the absence of consent at home does not change anything: the dictator controls a dense economic and commercial network that has its roots in a family clan – a clan that does not require elections, just agreements between relatives. and rather pragmatic violence to the application. As always, in a country ruled by the mafia system (as in Sicily, Nigeria or in other contemporary examples), economic and scientific progress is ignored or used for a single purpose: to take civil society back to the Middle Ages, as the oppression of the clans was the only law in force.


[1] Süleyman Altiparmak, “Cumhuriyet Dönemi Denizli’nin sosyal tarihi (1923-1950)”, Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Afyon 2008, page 132-133 – see also in https://acikerisim.aku.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11630/3473/S%C3%9CLEYMAN%20ALTIPARMAK%20Y%C3%9CKSEK%20L%C4%B0SANS%20TEZ%C4%B0.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

[2] Philip Mansel, “Costantinopoli: splendore e declino della capitale dell’Impero ottomano: 1453-1924”, Mondadori, Milano 1997, pages 341-346

[3] https://ilmanifesto.it/erdogan-lafricano-sbaraglia-haftar-e-si-riprende-la-libia/ ; https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2020/12/09/news/libia_haftar_sequestra_una_nave_turca_erdogan_lo_minaccia_se_ci_colpite_voi_diventate_nostri_obiettivi_legittimi_-277581138/ ; https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2020/12/10/news/libia_haftar_libera_la_nave_turca_dopo_le_minacce_di_erdogan-277802991/

[4] Philip Mansel, “Costantinopoli: splendore e declino della capitale dell’Impero ottomano: 1453-1924”, Mondadori, Milano 1997, pages 341-346

[5] Philip Mansel, “Costantinopoli: splendore e declino della capitale dell’Impero ottomano: 1453-1924”, Mondadori, Milano 1997, pages 347-356

[6] Süleyman Altiparmak, “Cumhuriyet Dönemi Denizli’nin sosyal tarihi (1923-1950)”, Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Afyon 2008, page 44-45 – see also in https://acikerisim.aku.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11630/3473/S%C3%9CLEYMAN%20ALTIPARMAK%20Y%C3%9CKSEK%20L%C4%B0SANS%20TEZ%C4%B0.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

[7] https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2020/12/11/news/i_leader_europei_contro_la_turchia_scattano_nuove_sanzioni-277864258/

[8] https://www.agi.it/estero/news/2020-12-15/sanzioni-usa-turchia-sistema-missilistico-russo-10680601/

[9] https://www.ispionline.it/it/pubblicazione/turchia-incubo-economia-erdogan-28508 ; https://www.huffingtonpost.it/entry/erdogan-cambia-uomini-ma-la-crisi-economica-turca-non-si-ferma_it_5faa3f41c5b6f21920df3942 ; https://lospiegone.com/2020/09/18/turchia-la-crisi-di-una-fragile-economia/

[10] https://www.ilpost.it/2013/06/03/perche-proteste-turchia/ ; https://www.ilpost.it/tag/proteste-turchia/ ; https://www.dinamopress.it/news/resistere-alla-kayyumizzazione-dissenso-nella-turchia-erdogan/

[11] https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/campaigns/2017/02/free-turkey-media/ ; https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/10/14/turkey-press-freedom-under-attack ; https://www.dw.com/en/tough-times-for-journalism-in-recep-tayyip-erdogans-turkey/a-51988660

[12] https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2020/10/12/news/la_turchia_rimanda_la_nave_della_discordia_a_kastellorizo-270298339/?ref=search ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgpcdR45F90https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2020/12/11/news/i_leader_europei_contro_la_turchia_scattano_nuove_sanzioni-277864258/

[13] https://www.swp-berlin.org/10.18449/2020C53/ ; https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-54903869

[14] https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/SR_Corruption_Media_Power_Turkey_PDF.pdf

[15] https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/05/13/turkish-democracy-cant-die-because-it-never-lived/ ; https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/gte_pb_19.pdf ; https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/SR_Corruption_Media_Power_Turkey_PDF.pdf ; https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-rise-and-fall-of-liberal-democracy-in-turkey-implications-for-the-west/ ; https://www.jstor.org/stable/44482209?seq=1

[16] https://www.incoaching.it/ethos-anthropoi-daimon/

[17] https://www.expedia.it/Denizli.dx6054845

[18] William Smith, “Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography”, Walton & Maberly, London 1854 – see also in http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0064%3Aalphabetic+letter%3DL%3Aentry+group%3D2%3Aentry%3Dlaodiceia-geo

[19] https://it.info-about.info/3463886/1/germiyan.html

[20] https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/485/

[21] https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/receptayyiperdogan/biography/

[22] https://www.atasay.com/hakkimizda

[23] https://www.pau.edu.tr/ubyo/en/sayfa/atasay-kamer-3

[24] https://books.google.it/books?id=tO9IDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT221&lpg=PT221&dq=turkish+smuggling+jewelry+1970&source=bl&ots=HmddS5TPtd&sig=ACfU3U1l2faZKKAC_-WU1aL2d5zLuWWkaA&hl=it&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj79t-yprTuAhUCPuwKHaXRAj0Q6AEwEXoECBEQAg#v=onepage&q=turkish%20smuggling%20jewelry%201970&f=false

[25] https://www.sabah.com.tr/yazarlar/kadak/2014/11/19/atasay-kamer-vakfini-kurdum-artik-gonlumce-hayir-yapacagim

[26] https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2018/6/11/why-ataturks-legacy-is-debated-80-years-after-his-death

[27] https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/babam-bana-acimazdi-ben-cocuklarima-kiyamam-28774033

[28] https://www.sabah.com.tr/yazarlar/kadak/2014/11/19/atasay-kamer-vakfini-kurdum-artik-gonlumce-hayir-yapacagim

[29] https://www.osservatoriodiritti.it/2020/01/09/curdi-siria-in-turchia-news-isis-cosa-sta-succedendo-storia/

[30] https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/banka-hesabim-yok-dedi-belgesi-ortaya-cikti-562116

[31] https://www.sondakika.com/haber/haber-kamer-bey-in-sevgi-plakasi/

[32] https://www.gazeteduvar.com.tr/ekonomi/2016/07/04/cihan-kamerin-yok-dedigi-hesap-panama-belgelerinde-var

[33] https://www.altinoluk.com.tr/vakif-insan-haci-mustafa-kamer-ks.html

[34] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/jeweler-collaborates-with-banks-to-collect-scrap-gold-23490

[35] https://odatv4.com/ekrem-tosunu-birak-cihan-kamerin-yukselisine-bak-0702091200.html

[36] https://www.atasay.com/kilometre-taslari

[37] https://opencorporates.com/companies?jurisdiction_code=&q=atasay&utf8=%E2%9C%93

[38] https://www.asgold.com/tr-TR/about.php

[39] https://odatv4.com/ekrem-tosunu-birak-cihan-kamerin-yukselisine-bak-0702091200.html

[40] https://www.yeniakit.com.tr/kimdir/Cihan_Kamer

[41] https://www.atasay.com/hakkimizda

[42] https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/cihan-kamer-kimdir-ve-kac-yasindadir-iste-cihan-kamerin-biyografisi-41429289

[43] https://www.gettyimages.it/detail/fotografie-di-cronaca/çiğdem-kamer-and-simay-kamer-are-özlem-süer-show-fotografie-di-cronaca/1179842143

[44] https://www.samaa.tv/global/2016/05/pm-sharif-becomes-witness-at-erdogans-daughter-wedding/

[45] https://odatv4.com/oglunun-kuyumculuk-meraki-ortaya-cikti-2002131200.html

[46] https://www.milliyet.com.tr/siyaset/ortakligi-gizlemedik-1056860%20+

[47] https://www.milliyet.com.tr/siyaset/ortakligi-gizlemedik-1056860%20+

[48] https://www.consob.it/web/investor-education/le-crisi-finanziarie#anni_90

[49] https://www.swissinfo.ch/ita/oro-e-sfruttamento_raffineria-svizzera-rompe-il-silenzio-intorno-alla-provenienza-dell-oro-da-aree-a-rischio/46087040

[50] https://www.7deniz.net/m-haber-16095.html ; https://www.sabah.com.tr/yasam/2020/04/07/cihan-kamer-kimdir-biz-bize-yeteriz-turkiyem-kampanyasi-13-milyon-tl-bagislayan-cihan-kamer-nereli-kac-yasinda-meslegi-ne ; https://odatv4.com/ekrem-tosunu-birak-cihan-kamerin-yukselisine-bak-0702091200.html

[51] https://odatv4.com/oglunun-kuyumculuk-meraki-ortaya-cikti-2002131200.html

[52] https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-isadami-cihan-kamerin-kizinin-nikah-sahitligini-yapti-29154488

[53] https://www.akparti.org.tr/en

[54] http://www.atakulche.com/en-US/news.php

[55] https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1111335/000111133520000022/cmrvisteon2019.htm

[56] https://www.star.com.tr/magazin/kamer-ailesinin-en-mutlu-gunu-haber-1033063/

[57] https://www.acibadem.com.tr/doktor/cihan-uras/

[58] https://www.un.org/sg/en/management/bios/Topbas.shtml

[59] https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/yazarlar/baris-terkoglu/ethem-sancak-nasil-musluman-oldu-1704095

[60] http://www.mfa.gov.tr/cv-of-minister-of-foreign-affairs-ali-babacan.en.mfa

[61] https://www.trt.net.tr/italiano/turchia/2017/11/02/nihat-zeybekci-in-italia-839547

[62] http://www.ankara.gov.tr/ankara-valisi-vasip-sahin

[63] http://www.biyografi.net/kisiayrinti.asp?kisiid=4120 ; https://www.tehrantimes.com/news/402467/Thousands-expected-to-attend-wedding-of-Erdo%c4%9fan-s-daughter

[64] https://archive.is/JsAng ; https://www.samaa.tv/global/2016/05/pm-sharif-becomes-witness-at-erdogans-daughter-wedding/

[65] https://www.theguardian.com/news/2019/nov/27/revealed-uk-technology-turkey-rise-global-drone-power ; https://www.albawaba.com/news/arms-azerbaijan-turkish-baykar-tb2-drones-enter-nagorno-karabakh-conflict-1385514 ; https://www.turkishminute.com/2020/10/17/turkish-drones-built-by-erdogans-son-in-law-used-in-war-zones-critics-say/ ; https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/turkey-armenia-azerbaijan-drones-bombardier-1.5775350

[66] https://www.sabah.com.tr/ekonomi/2014/02/04/gozcu-buldu-firtina-vurdu ; https://web.archive.org/web/20140812210856/http://www.gazetevatan.com/suriye-de–gozcu–buldu–firtina–vurdu–606650-gundem/ ; https://web.archive.org/web/20140812210154/http://kokpit.aero/gozcu-mini-iha-suleyman-sah-turbesini-gozetleyecek

[67] https://www.milliyet.com.tr/son-dakika-haberleri/ ; https://web.archive.org/web/20140812210849/http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/tsk_aktutunde_operasyon_baslatti-1197343 ; https://web.archive.org/web/20140812205718/http://kokpit.aero/hangi-iha-teroristleri-buldu

[68] http://www.gazetevatan.com/milli-iha-ya-milli-istihbarat-920685-gundem/ ; www.kokpit.aero/milli-iha-ya-milli-istihbarat ; https://www.ispionline.it/it/pubblicazione/remotely-piloted-ambitions-drones-turkish-foreign-policy-26378 ; https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20201212-turkish-drones-real-threat-to-enemies-uk-defense-chief/ ; https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/Turkey-begins-to-rival-China-in-military-drones

[69] https://www.baykarsavunma.com/

[70] https://archive.is/X9d9J ; https://archive.is/bev5N ; https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/turkey-armenia-azerbaijan-drones-bombardier-1.5775350

[71] https://www.turkishminute.com/2020/10/17/turkish-drones-built-by-erdogans-son-in-law-used-in-war-zones-critics-say/

[72] http://www.atakulche.com/en-US/news.php

[73] https://www.sabah.com.tr/ekonomi/2010/05/27/atasay_en_iyiler_listesine_girdi

[74] Atakulche on Nexis

[75] Kamer Sultan Kuyumculuk on Nexis; Atasay Kamer on Nexis; Atasay Mucevher Grup on Nexis; Atasay Holding on Nexis; Atakulche on Nexis

[76] https://www.pau.edu.tr/cmyo/en

[77] https://www.hospitalby.it/ospedale-turchia/guneysu-tenzile-erdogan-ilce-hastanesi.by/

[78] https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/kamer-tayyip-beyin-pesini-asla-birakmam-116099

[79] https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2017/01/24/bilal-erdogan-a-bologna-archiviata-indagine-per-riciclaggio-sul-figlio-del-presidente-turco/3338063/

[80] https://www.yeniakit.com.tr/kimdir/Cihan_Kamer

[81] https://www.haberler.com/amp/fotogaleri/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-isadami-cihan-kamer-in/

[82] https://www.tgrthaber.com.tr/gundem/-98225.html

[83] https://www.yenicaggazetesi.com.tr/kamere-muthis-ayricalik-tanindi-13546h.htm

[84] https://www.savk.com.tr

[85] https://www.milliyet.com.tr/ekonomi/cihan-kamerin-enerji-sirketlerini-akfen-aldi-207322

[86] https://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WL0902/S00007/cablegate-deals-with-iran-benefit-pm-erdogans-friends.htm

[87] https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/arkadas-dedigin-boyle-olur-173636

[88] https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/arkadas-dedigin-boyle-olur-173636

[89] https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2015/gundem/erdoganin-altincisina-basbakanliktan-plaka-811406/

[90] https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2015/gundem/erdoganin-altincisina-basbakanliktan-plaka-811406/

[91] https://www.turizmguncel.com/haber/fettah-tamincenin-yapacagi-projenin-temelini-erdogan-atti

[92] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/businessman-karamehmet-sentenced-to-seven-years-in-prison-for-embezzlement-46674 ; https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/194922 ; https://www.ekathimerini.com/8621/article/ekathimerini/business/court-approves-seizure-asset-sale-of-pamukbank-keeps-reform-intact

[93] https://archive.vn/20130418173542/http://arama.hurriyet.com.tr/arsivnews.aspx?id=-500678 ; https://web.archive.org/web/20090205022400/http://www.tihv.org.tr/tihve/data/Yayinlar/Human_Rights_Reports/Ra1998HumanRigthsReport.pdf ; https://web.archive.org/web/20090205022400/http://www.tihv.org.tr/tihve/data/Yayinlar/Human_Rights_Reports/Ra1998HumanRigthsReport.pdf

[94] https://www.brookings.edu/research/turkey-the-new-model/

[95] https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/01/06/why-turkeys-mother-of-all-corruption-scandals-refuses-to-go-away/https://www.dw.com/en/turkey-rocked-by-corruption-scandal/a-17324458 ; https://www.businessinsider.com/recap-of-corruption-scandal-in-turkey-2013-12?IR=T ; https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/17/turkish-ministers-sons-arrested-corruption-investigation ;

[96] https://pelinunker.wordpress.com/category/panamapapers/page/2/

[97] https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/10026955

[98] https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/10134918

[99] https://pelinunker.wordpress.com/category/panamapapers/page/2/

[100] https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/11005698

[101] https://pelinunker.wordpress.com/category/panamapapers/page/2/

[102] https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/10163862

[103] https://www.legal500.com/firms/10727-asc-law-office/10981-istanbul-turkey/lawyers/1068385-okan-beygo/

[104] https://www.dentons.com/en/buboso

[105] https://www.gazeteduvar.com.tr/ekonomi/2016/07/04/cihan-kamerin-yok-dedigi-hesap-panama-belgelerinde-var ; https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/banka-hesabim-yok-dedi-belgesi-ortaya-cikti-562116

[106] https://pelinunker.wordpress.com/category/panamapapers/page/2/

[107] https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/55043195

[108] https://t24.com.tr/haber/fettah-tamince-turizm-ajansi-nin-yonetim-kurulu-uyeligine-atandi,836344

[109] https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/56061452 ; https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/12039874 ; https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/12217665 ; https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/56104331 ; https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/56104004 ; https://offshoreleaks.icij.org/nodes/56103976

[110] https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/fettah-tamince-teror-dairesine-sevk-edildi-1719745

[111] https://www.turizmguncel.com/haber/fettah-tamincenin-yapacagi-projenin-temelini-erdogan-atti

[112] https://pelinunker.wordpress.com/category/panamapapers/page/2/

[113] https://pelinunker.wordpress.com/category/panamapapers/page/2/

[114] http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Nagorno-Karabakh,-Turkish-weapons-in-support-of-the-Azeris-in-the-war-with-the-Armenians-51308.html ; https://nationalinterest.org/blog/middle-east-watch/nagorno-karabakh-why-turkey-sending-syrian-mercenaries-war-azerbaijan-169849 ; https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20201113-turkeys-strategic-victory-in-nagorno-karabakh/

[115] Soner Capagtay, “Erdogan’s Empire: Tureky and the Politics of the Middle East”, IB Tauris/Bloomsbury Publishing, London/New York 2020 – see also in http://tabyincenter.ir/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Soner_Cagaptay_Erdogan%E2%80%99s_Empire_Turkey_And_The_Politics_Of_The_Middle.pdf

[116] https://theblacksea.eu/stories/malta-files/erdogan-family-in-secret-offshore-ship-deal/

[117] Soner Capagtay, “Erdogan’s Empire: Tureky and the Politics of the Middle East”, IB Tauris/Bloomsbury Publishing, London/New York 2020 – see also in  http://tabyincenter.ir/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Soner_Cagaptay_Erdogan%E2%80%99s_Empire_Turkey_And_The_Politics_Of_The_Middle.pdf

[118] https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-09-07/turkey-s-muscle-flexing-in-the-med-isn-t-just-about-gas

[119] https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-03-07/mapping-the-turkish-military-s-expanding-footprint-quicktake

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