7 January 2021 in Dossier American Lobbyng, Lobbying


On November 26, 2020, in “il Riformista”, journalist Aldo Torchiaro begins to publish a series of articles documenting how Casaleggio Srl – the company that controls the Five Star Movement – has continuously received large sums along several years from Philip Morris International[1]. Torchiaro also shows that since the 2018 elections, all the governments including the 5-Star Movement have been extremely generous to the tobacco multinational, reducing its taxes and helping it open a factory in Taranto[2].

This is just the tip of the iceberg, the roots of which are lost in the fog of time and the intrigues of the P2 Masonic Lodge, in the rampant corruption of state monopoly officials, in the gifts to various personalities. generous political decisions and decisions; until one day British American Tobacco (BAT), the world’s second-largest multinational tobacco company, appeared before the Rome prosecution – determined to somehow end 50 years of lobbying infiltration and leave prosecute the illegal acts of PMI officials[3].

The great Torchiaro study arouses limited interest; it is mainly recorded and commented on social networks, especially by those who, for lack of affection, intellect and balance, have chosen the M5S movement because they have, as Giorgio Gaber would have said, feel alone – and today vehemently defend the mantra of a religious sect as converts who fight as best they can against an enemy that is invisible and terrifying to them: reality. In our opinion, the “others” have remained silent in the media chaos which is wrongly called “political”, because they know it is dangerous when the ox calls the donkey a cuckold.

In the years of the First Republic, corruption was rife because to influence a party’s election it was not enough to fund it through central channels – even parliamentarians and regional leaders had to be satisfied. In the most famous case, the so-called “Mother of all bribes[4] in the solution to the catastrophic merger between ENI and Montedison, the Ferruzzi group paid 150 billion lire to a very long line of political figures – including (after the conclusion of three judicial bodies) also the leader and founder of LegaNord, Umberto Bossi, who was sentenced to 8 months in prison[5]. Since then, the Philip Morris sponsorship system has come a long way.

Half a Century of Bribes and Tax Giveaways

The entrance to the huge office building with the Philip Morris factory (and Orecla Sarl) in Lausanne

The first real attempt to concentrate investments in corruption on a single organization that could then organize the vote in parliament without paying dozens of senators is that of Philip Morris, who contacted Roberto Memmo in the early 1980s[6] – one of the most popular and powerful men among those enlisted in the P2 Masonry Lodge led by Licio Gelli. He was convicted in 1953 for embezzlement (but was then several times under the microscope of justice[7]), but he has a large network of friends and relatives who can be helping: he is cousin of the president of the court of Lecce, cousin of the deputy chief of the Italian police force, close friend of the bankers of the caliber of Michele Sindona and Roberto Calvi[8].

With a deal with Philip Morris in his pocket, Memmo attempted to bribe Marco Pannella and the Radical Party[9] as they fought to liberalize light drugs, but then decided it was better to go and try with Giulio Andreotti, Flaminio Piccoli and other current leaders of the Christian Democrats. However, he was the first in Italy to organize the smuggling of cigarettes on behalf of Philip Morris to avoid paying customs duties[10].

At the head of the organization stood alongside Memmo the president of Philip Morris Europe, the Ticino-born Aleardo Buzzi[11], a famous man of the Formula 1 circus, who signed the major sponsorship agreements with BRM, Ferrari and McLaren[12]. It is from these years that Memmo (who has become an international art dealer since the 1990s) remembers the excitement, the knowledge of the big shots by the US government, the CIA and the Christian Democrats[13]. From these old scandals, he emerged from the prescription unscathed.

Buzzi has an important past with the justice system too: he was investigated in Trieste in 1957 on suspicion of tax evasion. Then the press reported that he was chairman and shareholder of Intertaba SpA, which made cigarette filters for products made by the Italian state monopoly – although he was the boss of a direct competitor, Philip Morris[14].

According to Interpol, Buzzi created a financial company, Orecla SA Lausanne, to hide bribes from various politicians across Europe and to coordinate the smuggling of Philip Morris products in Eastern Europe, North Africa and in Europe – and later also in Central Asia: a country from which previously would not have been able to sell cigarettes at a price unaffordable for the population if the multinational had had to pay customs taxes[15].

In fact, Orecla SA Lausanne has existed since 1928 and is still very much alive[16]. In addition to it, a second company has grown, Orecla Service SA Lausanne[17], which we will discuss in another article in this dossier[18]. Intertaba still exists but changed its name to Philip Morris Bologna[19]. PMI was forced to do so because this old criminal case, which went to the Court of Cassation, forced the tobacco multinational to admit that it secretly controlled a business and had to pay taxes that didn’t have never been paid, and which, even after the completion of the project, have not been paid[20].

In 1997 Buzzi, along with other executives from Philip Morris, was accused by the Naples prosecutor’s office of tax evasion precisely because of the activities of Intertaba (which turns out to be a subsidiary of PMI) and Orecla – a case in which an official of the Guardia di Finanza was also involved. The accused speaks of a sum stolen from the Treasury for more than twenty years: 10,000 billion lire – the equivalent of 5 billion euros, a frightening thing[21]. The process was later canceled due to the limitation period reached, but the result stuck: Philip Morris was exempt from several tax measures until 1998[22].

The criminal investigation continues: the latest resulted in an adviser to Philip Morris Italy, Leo Checcaglini, accused of acting as an intermediary between the company and the leaders of the customs authorities and monopolies in exchange for administrative favors – in return monetary donations, in exchange for professional promotion and in some cases even in exchange for an apartment[23]. In the meantime, the investigation has expanded to include three PMI officials: Eugenio Sidoli, Gianluca Bellavista and Nicola Fogolin, who have been brought to justice and awaiting trial[24].

However, perhaps this is a special case that belongs to the adventurous past and this managing style is now ready to be replaced by other, cheaper and more efficient systems. To force an entire party to support a certain law, about 10% of these sums are sufficient today, and it is certain that obedience is guaranteed not only in one case, but for at least one term. At the time, parties were a forge of ideas and interests, perhaps not all legitimate. Today, political parties are businesses with one leader and no ideological affiliation – populism is nothing more than this: leading an electoral cartel by changing products every time there is a change in taste, that it is at short intervals of just a few days. Such an agreement acts according to the rules of the commercial market and is therefore for sale at a very moderate price.

In this trend, we Italians were the fastest in the Western world, even if today En Marche in France, the AfD in Germany and other populist parties with their cynical opportunism show that they have learned the lesson well. After all, for nearly 200 years Italy has been an exceptional political laboratory, where the great powers have engaged in examining new methods of political colonialism, lobbying and manipulating popular consensus.

Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich wrote in a letter of 1847 that Italy was “only a geographical expression[25] and believed that there was no place for Italy in the days of national monarchies. From the Congress of Vienna (1815), when the wind of Bonapartism was carried by the Restoration, all of Europe burned under the pressure of independence and anti-monarchist uprisings: the decision to leave this “geographical expression” to the control of the French duchy, Savoy, was a pragmatic decision. No one expected what would happen next – the Roman Republic of 1849 and the great battles of Risorgimento.

Philip Morris buys the loyalty of the Beppe Grillo Movement

Marco Turco (M5S, left), Undersecretary of State for Economic Planning, meets with the head of Philip Morris Italy, Marco Hannappel (right), at the IQOS plant in Taranto, which was opened thanks to a funding decided on the initiative of Turco and his party[26]

It all starts with a proposal from Customs Director Marcello Minenna in early fall 2020. Like all loyal officials, Minenna is looking for measures that will generate tax revenue or at least reduce spending. He realizes that both electronic cigarettes and so-called IQOS (modern hookahs, manufactured exclusively by Philip Morris, which allow you to breathe cooked tobacco instead of smoked burnt tobacco[27]) are virtually tax-exempt and offer corrective measures to the new finance law[28].

The official reason for leniency towards IQOS is that, unlike cigarettes, the IQOS cartridge is no longer considered harmful (by politicians) and therefore is a blessing that deserves a reduction in excise duties: a reduction of 50% per year in 2014, when IQOS hits the market, plus an additional 25% in 2018, when the government led by the Five Star Movement (M5S) and Lega Nord was born[29] – and besides, at the same time as the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) expressed its first doubts about this new fashion[30]: the ISS presented a report to the Gentiloni government in December 2018, prepared in light of the most reliable independent studies on the subject, which clarified that the IQOS, like cigarettes, also contained carcinogenic nitrosamines, acrolein, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. IQOS does not reduce particulate emissions and, while reducing nicotine from 84% to 57%, it replaces with 56 new substances, many of which are highly toxic and which were not present in “old” cigarettes[31].

The Conte-Salvini-Di Maio government decided not to take into account the report, which disappeared from the official archives of Parliament[32]. The report will appear again in May 2020 at the initiative of the Conte-bis government’s Health Ministry, under the leadership of Roberto Speranza, and contains a clear condemnation of IQOS and electronic cigarettes[33]. But the decision is made: the planned introduction of a 25% excise tax has mysteriously disappeared from the draft budget for 2021[34] – a generous Christmas present.

Why is it so generous, this has been explained by the journalist Aldo Torchiaro, who discovers this nasty affair on the pages of “Il Riformista” and explains: “If a pack of traditional cigarettes costs 5 euros, 4 goes to the tax authorities for excise duties and VAT. 50 cents go to the tobacconist. The manufacturer’s margin is 50 cents per packet sold. For heated tobacco products, the packaging costs an average of 4.50 euros. In this case too, 50 cents goes to tobacco. But the tax is lower. Let’s say 1.50 euros The margin for Philip Morris is 2.50 euros for each package sold (…): In Italy, 13 million IQOS have been sold in four years, each to be purchased continuously. The margin obtained is stratospheric figures[35].

The Milan public prosecutor’s office, headed by Maurizio Romanelli, head of the anti-corruption pool, is currently investigating the possibility that this political decision could anticipate an illegal act[36]. The fact remains that this political decision may have been influenced by the payment of bribes: Davide Casaleggio, chairman and main shareholder of Casaleggio Srl (the company that receives the money from PMI), argues that there is no connection between the money his business was paid by their customers and the political decisions of the M5S; In addition, Philip Morris claims that this money was paid as payment for professional services by Casaleggio Srl under certain contracts relating to the multinational tobacco company’s website – and sued “il Riformista”[37].

Aldo Torchiaro revealed irreproachable facts during his investigation: “Casaleggio Associati srl – which until now was clearly operating as a service company for the M5S – received the total of 1,950,166 euros and 74 cents from Philip Morris Italy minus VAT. Almost two million euros, which amount to 2,379,203 euros with taxation. An impressive figure which concerns a billing period that we analyzed between September 2017 and October 2020. The consulting relationship between the global tobacco industry giant and Casaleggio Associati is a relationship of continuity: the invoices do not refer to an event precise, but are carried out regularly over time. Those we have been able to verify relate to 49 payments, many of them for around 50,000 euros, some smaller and others, notably the end of year bill of 140,000 euros, which was replaced at the end of November Average of Philip’s Morris transfers transferred and received by Davide Casaleggio’s company over time amounted to 40,000 euros per month over the period under review. Compared to the period between 2017 and February 2018, the sums paid will increase from March 2018 when the five-star movement with the league passes to the government[38].

These are not unknown facts: but Aldo Torchiaro is the first to demonstrate with unassailable documents the fact that the 5 Star Movement, which calls “honesty, honesty, honesty” in the streets for more than a decade, accepts everyone’s money – so often that political party leader Vito Crimi has issued a warning report to M5S regulators for uncovering a number of suspicious donations[39]. One concerns MEP Dino Giarrusso, who says he declared and accepted every penny because, from 2018, the same companies also paid the association that holds the rights to the M5S electoral rolls, and no one is never opposed to it[40].

Davide Casaleggio’s defense, reinforced by official press releases from Philip Morris International between November and December 2020, focuses on one central point: the money was accepted by Casaleggio Srl, again fully independent from M5S[41]. Casaleggio therefore argues that it is absurd to believe that these payments had an impact on the political line of M5S deputies.

There are several arguments that contradict the thesis confirmed by Casaleggio, some of which are summarized by the director of “il Riformista”, Piero Sansonetti: “There are three facts that no one disputes. For the first, Philip Morris gave Casaleggio two and a half million; then Casaleggio is the real leader of the five-star party. Third, the M5S changed from an anti-tobacco party to a tobacco-friendly party and passed an amendment that allowed Philip Morris to raise € 250 million a year. That’s all (…). Having said these three indisputable things – continues Sansonetti – let’s stand in the middle of the street, stop passers-by and ask them: “Do you think there is a connection between all this or not?” And we will see that they respond[42].

On December 3, 2020, still on “il Riformista”, Nicola Biondo reports a meeting at Palazzo Chigi on the evening of July 7, 2020 between Prime Minister Giuseppe Conti and Davide Casaleggio, as the government authorized the final version of the budget: Before the meeting, the maneuver envisioned a substantial increase in excise taxes and duties on Philip Morris products, the proceeds of which would be used to finance a fund for the benefit of chronically ill patients who can no longer be hospitalized in the face of the pandemic but who have need extensive home care. After this session, the two measures will disappear from the finance law, the representatives of the parties will not notice it until two days later, when the measure will reach the court for a vote of confidence[43].

The undemocratic foundations of the new corporate party

The accounting document published in “il Riformista” on the payments made by Philip Morris to Casaleggio Srl[44]

If Casaleggio had really been just an advertising consultant and not a party leader, it wouldn’t be clear why Conte should have met him and why, as it seems, their meeting had direct consequences for the budget law, without a discussion beforehand with the coalition. That’s not all: Philip Morris payments are payment for professional service and represent 29.5% of Casaleggio’s turnover. This clearly shows that the satisfaction of Casaleggio’s main customer from its employees – the MPs elected on the M5S lists – is a must[45].

Regarding the link between Casaleggio and the M5S, this was explained in detail by Luciano Capone and Claudio Cerasa in “il Foglio”: The Five-Star Movement was founded in association in 2009 and the members did not have the right to vote. Not only that: in 2013, for security reasons, a second association was founded which no one could join in and which gave Beppe Grillo the ownership of the symbol and therefore the power to make all political decisions, including electoral lists[46].

It was not until December 2017 that a third Five Star Association was founded, replacing the first and only has the symbol under concession, which still belongs to Beppe Grillo. Members can only vote through the Rousseau platform, which decides without checking or reviewing the results – and in any case only if Davide Casaleggio, Luigi Di Maio, Vito Crimi and Beppe Grillo decide autocratically whether it will be necessary to consult the base[47].

So far, all referendums on Rousseau have upheld the decisions of Grillo and Di Maio, although disputes have occasionally arisen. Those who protest will be expelled from the movement, which significantly reduced the M5S parliamentary patrol elected in March 2018[48]. It follows that the Rousseau platform (which is an association) holds the real political and organizational power within the M5S, as confirmed by chapter 1 of the statutes – that is to say “Announcements and / or actions and / or policies and / or decisions are discussed on the “Rousseau platform” through specific agreements to be agreed with the Rousseau Association[49]. Rousseau has its headquarters in the offices of Casaleggio Srl, while the M5S has no headquarters, based on the principle of wanting to be movement and therefore no need for a seat[50].

Nicola Biondo and Marco Canestrari have published two essays on M5S, which are the best analysis of it, which is the second corporate-party in the history of Italy after Forza Italia by Silvio Berlusconi, with a profound difference: the TV-tycoon decided to go into politics to protect the interests of its own business, the Casaleggio family did so to create one[51]. It looks like an extension of the idea behind the Social Democratic Party of the First Republic (through the alliance of its national secretary Pietro Longo with the Masonic lodge P2[52] and through the protagonist of the first verdict of an Italian minister, Mario Tanassi, jailed for four months in 1977 for bribes from Lockheed’s military industry[53]). The M5S is a cab that champions payers – and Philip Morris is one of the highest paid customers[54].

In June 2020, the conservative Spanish newspaper ABC wrote that Gianroberto Casaleggio, Davide’s father and founder of M5S, had received 3.5 million euros in cash from then-Venezuelan Foreign Minister Nicolás Maduro in 2009 – an assertion that both parties have categorically denied[55]

Beppe Grillo was not chosen at random when the Casaleggio family were looking for a charismatic leader for the corporate party: the Genoese comedian has a background as a moral defender and respectful of the environment[56] (his “then” insults against Philip Morris are famous[57]) and until the victory of M5S in the 2018 election, Grillo never missed an opportunity to stress his opposition to the interests of the tobacco multinational in any political contex[58]t. But Beppe Grillo is also the one who seems accustomed to receiving illegal payments for his shows[59]; the one who attacks those who say so publicly[60]; and the one who, with this money earned through tax evasion, founded a small financial empire in Costa Rica where he designed a luxury resort to secure the future of his children[61].

The real question is another. With the abolition of public party funding (introduced by the Piccoli Law of 1974[62]), enacted in December 2013 due to the emotional wave associated with the criminal investigation known as “Mani Pulite[63], traditional parties can no longer manage and finance their own political structure without resorting to the money paid by private companies that use it to defend their own interests.

It is not about discussing whether this was a good or a bad thing – the point is that today any group that wants to participate in an election campaign has to find important sponsors and make them happy. If in the First Republic it was the politicians who had the knife on the side of the handle, now it is the companies. The corruption has remained the same, as the former Milan Pool judge Gherardo Colombo unfortunately admits when teaching civic education in schools[64].

Globalization has brought about a fundamental shift in the forces that offer money to parties. Since the birth of M5S, Beppe Grillo and Gianroberto Casaleggio have done everything to link their party company to the Occupy Wall Street (OWS) movement, which in September 2011 organized several peaceful and spectacular protests against the inhumanity of financial capitalism with flash-mobs[65]. OWS has faced mounting costs, which likely led to far-right lobbyists infiltrating and taking their money[66], due to the limited ingenuity and lack of preparation of its founders. Something similar is happening in Rome: Mayor Virginia Raggi took part in a demonstration sponsored by Philip Morris on September 19, 2020 with much enthusiasm – but we highly doubt Ms. Raggi knows why the capital multinational is there preparing to support her re-election[67].

All of this (i.e. the ability to build a party company with large, influential, and financially strong sponsors by manipulating a spontaneous movement) most appealed to Grillo and Casaleggio, who admit to seeking inspiration in the construction of OWS M5S[68]. In 2013, the Spanish geopolitical magazine “Vanguardia“, which publishes a monographic edition on OWS, found that the most serious infiltrations – those that changed the political balance within the OWS towards the far right – came from the ALEC (American Legislative Exchange Council)[69] or the very dangerous lobby that Donald Trump has brought to power, which has several Philip Morris executives in its ranks and supports supremacist, sovereign, racist and undemocratic candidates around the world – and compares once again OWS at M5S[70].

How is it possible? There is no doubt about the sincerity of the OWS in the fall and winter of 2011-2012: in Portland, as in Phoenix, ALEC quickly became the target of ridicule and protests from the various local committees of the OWS[71]. ALEC’s response was startling: As Krista Craven, associate professor of legislative and policy studies at Guilford College in Greensboro, NC[72], and some of her colleagues have shown, the lobby (as well as the FBI) could infiltrate organizations with the goal of getting people into the ranks of the local OWS[73].

These infiltrators then sabotaged the flash-mobs and warned companies and associations before OWS demonstrated in front of their offices[74]. Then they collected documents against individual activists to facilitate the possibility of their arrest. Later they started giving money and legal aid to those in difficulty[75]… so that in the end the manipulation got so deep that it left the vast majority of those who had was the driving force behind the disaffected movement[76].

A similar development is currently underway in M5S[77], and if you want to indulge in the irony, that’s exactly what happens in George Orwell’s visionary novel “Animal Farm“. The book describes the raising of animals on a farm and the takeover of power by pigs, which turn out to be worse than humans and end up allying with them[78]. Despite this, OWS can proudly say that thanks to its protest, more than 140 large companies have stopped supporting ALEC[79] – another sign of the contradictory complexity of the times we live in.

An Italian blog from 2013 goes so far as to link ALEC and M5S through the famous esoteric video with which Casaleggio promoted his ideological line of so-called “digital democracy” at the start of the movement[80]. The authors of the blog discover that the post-democratic ideal of Casaleggio and Grillo, called GAIA[81], was invented by ALEC and continues to be used around the world with the support of Philip Morris, Altria and Mondēlez[82] as a model for management. unified political and ecological policy of planet Earth, will be continued by the ALEC group[83]. If this connection were true, all claims against M5S of being a party corporation whose aim is to manipulate consumers into giving up the principles of the common good and democracy would be irrevocably true.

Why the rest of Italian politics are silent

Crespellano, Bologna, September 23, 2016 – Prime Minister Matteo Renzi cuts the ribbon during the inauguration of the IQOS factory of Philip Morris[84]

In the Gospel, we read the sentence of Jesus, with which he countered the Pharisees who wanted to stone adultery: “Let him who is without sin cast the first stone“. The lack of reaction from other parties to the Philip Morris / M5S scandal is simply explained by the fact that the American multinational has always been in contact with everyone and that, as we have already described, there are traces agreements from previous parties in our history. The perplexity over PMI money at M5S has to do with the proclamations of absolute honesty upon which the movement built its consensus and the fact that Philip Morris had been the devil’s equivalent of Grillo, as he was for his supporters, for many years[85].

Since 2009, the weekly “l’Espresso” has documented payments made by PMI to the Italianieuropei Foundation by Giuliano Amato and Massimo D’Alema, which were subsequently confirmed by other sources[86]. Over the years, whenever the government has attempted to increase taxes on cigarettes, Italianieuropei has fought hard and tried to convince MPs from the PD and related lists not to vote on such a measure[87]. Ugo Sposetti, senator for decades and later deputy, friend and assistant of Massimo D’Alema, treasurer of DS for years and later of Ulivo, in front of the microphones of the television show “Report” does not only admit having accepted money from the tobacco industry, he even complains that he thinks there was too little[88].

In recent years, Philip Morris has worked alongside Matteo Renzi, first when he was Mayor of Florence and executive cadre of the PD, then when he became Prime Minister and now as National Secretary of Italia Viva: in 2016 Matteo Renzi received tax breaks and financial support for the construction of a new factory from Philip Morris near Bologna[89], which after the split between PD and Italia Viva, established a collaborative relationship with the new national secretary of the PD, Nicola Zingaretti[90].

Among the supporters of the Philip Morris operation was then the vice-president of the Emilia-Romagna region (and now in the European Parliament for the PD), Elisabetta Gualmini[91]. Renzi has been regularly invited to teach at the Ambrosetti Forum in Cernobbio[92], organized by the European House Ambrosetti (the most powerful global lobbying organization based in Italy[93]) whose main client is Philip Morris International[94]. One of the main partners of the European House Ambrosetti (surprisingly?) Is the American Legislative Exchange Center – the infamous ALEC – which works with the Ambrosetti Group in the defense of multinational tobacco companies[95].

One result of this collaboration is the DISC (Digital Information Service Center) inaugurated a few months ago by Philip Morris and Ambrosetti in Taranto: investments of 100 million euros and 400 jobs[96]. In exchange, the Ministry of Agriculture, headed by Senator Teresa Bellanova (Italia Viva), extended grants to Philip Morris to support Italy’s tobacco supply chain[97]. This is not the first time that the ministry, under the leadership of a PD executive, has come to a generous deal with Philip Morris – Paolo Di Castro, now MEP, did in 2009[98].

In 1997, when Vincenzo Visco, a man loyal to then-Prime Minister Romano Prodi, became Secretary of the Treasury and the criminal investigation into Philip Morris’ corruption allegations known as “Cassandra”[99] was still ongoing, the government promoted four fiscal and fiscal frameworks. Customs Administration: Michele Del Giudice, Antonio Macchia, William Rossi and Carmelo Sapienza[100]. The four had one thing in common: They had all been investigated and charged with complicity in tax evasion with Philip Morris, and they were promoted because the highest ranking official, Ernesto Dal Gizzo, was the official reporting the corruption and the Cassandra’s tax evasion had been removed from office – under the joint signature of Prodi and Visco[101]. The fact convinced MP Daniele Molgora and Senator Fiorello Provera, both of the Lega, to present an indignant parliamentary question, which the Prime Minister never answered[102].

Bad company around Matteo Salvini

Lega leader Matteo Salvini (left) and founder of the US lobby for tax reform as well as CEFTA American Legislative Exchange Center member Grover Norquist (right) meet in Washington[103]

Fiorello Provera was a member of the League’s European parliamentary group between 2009 and 2014[104]. He and Mario Borghezio worked with the Belgian parliamentarian (Flemish nationalist) Philip Claeys[105], who represented his party at the Lega congresses[106] and with whom Borghezio and Provera signed various initiatives[107]. Philip Clays is a member of the ALEC International Relations Working Group[108] – a group within the powerful American lobby chaired by Brandie Davis, a director of Philip Morris International[109].

Again, no one is surprised. The agreement between the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Philip Morris, recently renewed by the current Minister Teresa Bellanova, was initially signed by the Minister of LegaNord, Gian Marco Centinaio[110]. While M5S worked to bring Philip Morris to Taranto today, Lega attempted two years ago to bring the multinational to Veneto, much to the satisfaction of LegaNord’s regional president Luca Zaia[111].

Back at ALEC, this organization is a political reference for Salvini, who likes to quote Arthur Betz Laffer, economic adviser to Ronald Reagan, George W. Bush and Donald Trump[112] and is one of the most influential members of the ALEC – Salvini considers him to be his mentor on economic issues[113]. When Salvini travels to Washington in June 2019 to run for the Trump administration[114], the leader meets Grover Norquist[115], the far-right lobbyist who founded the American Tax Reform (ATR) association in 1985[116]: he is one of the most powerful men in the ALEC and in the United States[117]. The lobby is partly funded by the Koch brothers (founders of ALEC)[118] and partly by the tobacco industry[119]. Politically, Norquist is extremely conservative – for example, he’s a man just as sick with the death penalty as he is today in the United States: he wants a return to public beheading[120].

Norquist is seen as one of the components of the so-called “Gang of Five“, the American fundamentalist law super pool, which may have influenced the economic, social and military policy of the United States of America during the last half. -century – from Ronald Reagan to the Bush family to Donald Trump[121]. In his autobiography, Jack Abramoff, who considers himself his friend and equal among Republican Party “influencers”, considers him one of the most powerful and right-wing men in the world[122].

A problematic friendship. In 2006, Norquist was personally involved in the money laundering scandal that cost Abramoff his freedom: casino owners who went to war with a Christian fundamentalism organization, Preacher Ralph Reed’s Christian Coalition[123], decide to join forces and decides to pay Reed $ 1.2 million[124]. You can’t do it right now, that would be too embarrassing so use (and pay) a middleman, Jack Abramoff[125], and he uses Norquist’s ATR to launder the money[126].

It turns out that Ralph Reed must resign[127] and Jack Abramoff is sentenced to four years in prison for fraud, tax evasion, corruption and paying a fine of over $ 23 million[128]. Norquist will not be sentenced as there is no evidence that he knew the source of the illegal money deposited into his club’s accounts[129]. After serving his sentence, Abramoff will be arrested again in 2020 for fraud against 2,400 clients[130] and has now been sentenced to an additional five years in prison[131].

Lega, M5S and obedience to the enemies of Pope Francis

From left to right: Matteo Salvini, Raymond Leo Burke, Giancarlo Giorgetti and in the background Steve Bannon – four directors of the Sciacca Foundation, which illegally occupies the Certosa di Trisulti[132]

On July 5, 2018, Matteo Salvini was elected president of the scientific committee of the Sciacca Foundation, and the deputy of the Northern League, Giancarlo Giorgetti, number two of the league, former secretary of state in the first Conte government, was elected as his deputy – the head of the foundation is Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke and among the partners and directors are Steve Bannon and Augusto Sinagra, membership card P2 2234, lawyer of Licio Gelli[133] who has been repeatedly investigated for his links with the Trapani mafia[134] and Freemasonry and is now an activist of the neo-fascist movement CasaPound[135]; Sinagra has also been the defender and (in fact, since hiding them) the protector of Colonel Jorge Antonio Olivera and Colonel Carlos Luis Malatto – two of the worst and bloodthirsty murderers and torturers of Argentina’s military junta, in power since the end. 1970s. and were sought after around the world after the fall of the regime[136].

The head of the secret services Gennaro Vecchione, Father Bruno Lima and the banker Ettore Gotti Tedeschi sit on the governing bodies of the Sciacca Foundation[137]. The latter has an exceptional career: he founded Akros Bank, which continued to be involved in the fraudulent bankruptcy of the Parmalat group[138] (Gotti Tedeschi was investigated in this area and then acquitted[139]). However, Don Bruno, known to have recited the Holy Mass in Latin, was the one who introduced Matteo Salvini to Cardinal Burke[140]. Don Bruno joined the Sciacca Foundation after his spiritual father, the former apostolic nuncio of the United States, Carlo Maria Viganò, was the prelate who started the war against Pope Bergoglio with an official letter[141].

In addition, the members of the Foundation include many successful military officers: Gennaro Vecchione, Director General of the Department of Security Information; Vittorio Rizzi, Deputy Chief of Police and Director of Criminalpol; General Gioacchino Angeloni, regional commander of the Guardia di Finanza of Sardinia; and the commander of the autonomous grouping of the Ministry of Defense, Major General Gerardo Restaino[142]. Anyone who clings to Cardinal Burke’s political project of launching a heresy trial against Pope Francis – a project of which Steve Bannon is the true ideologue[143].

Indeed, since 2014, Bannon has been working with the Dignitas Humanae Institute, founded in 2008 and of which Cardinal Burke is president, to “protect and promote human dignity based on the anthropological truth that man is born in the image and in the likeness of God”- or to counter the overtures made by Pope Francis in favour of divorced, remarried and homosexual people and to prepare a group of ultra-conservative Catholics for the conclave which will elect Bergoglio’s successor after his death[144]: Dignitatis Humanae promotes leadership courses for Catholic politicians at the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti (in Frosinone)[145].

As noted in another article in this dossier, Steve Bannon is one of the founders of Cambridge Analytica and sold his stake (for an undisclosed amount of $ 1 million[146]) when he joined President Donald Trump’s staff. to the White House[147]. Yet when the US Senate opened an investigation into relations with two Trump advisers (George Papadopoulos and Robert Page, both subsequently convicted), suspected of being involved in a conspiracy with Cambridge Analytica and Vladimir Putin over the outcome of the 2016 presidential elections and their possible manipulation, Bannon was called upon to defend himself[148] and he decided to immigrate to Europe for a while[149]. At this point, the president had already fired him and considered him too compromised, despite being famous as “the black ghost behind Trump[150].

When Bannon arrived in Europe shortly before the spring 2019 European elections, he founded ‘The Movement’ – a political association that aims to bring together populist leaders from the old continent to promote economic nationalism and right-wing populism[151]. Matteo Salvini joined them at the end of 2018[152]. As a representative of the movement, Bannon began a series of talks and rallies across Europe on March 6, 2019 from Zurich. The conference was organized by the weekly “Die Weltwoche“, which also included two leaders of the German far-right AfD party (Alice Weidel and Beatrix von Storch)[153]. From that day on, Bannon started working with the Weltwoche [154].

A few days later, Bannon spoke in Paris during a demonstration by the leader of the Republicans, Marine Le Pen[155], and there Bannon welcomed the fact that the Front National (the union of all French right-wing extremists), as well as LegaNord by Matteo Salvini, and Beppe Grillo and Davide Casaleggios for the Five Star Movement would have already been the cornerstone in building the ultra-conservative and fundamentalist Christian global future, of which Bannon sees as the main vehicle[156].

Augusto Sinagra (on the left), lawyer for Licio Gelli, protector of torturers of the Argentine military junta, activist of CasaPound, was in 2014 by Luigi Di Maio (M5S, on the right, former Minister of Foreign Affairs, political head of M5S and former Vice President of the Italian Government) in an M5S Event invited as an international political advisor[157]

It’s worth using a few lines to explain why Steve Bannon chose a small Swiss weekly to start his crusade. Die Weltwoche is a magazine with a great history and a liberal-democratic tradition[158], which over the years has found itself in a financial crisis in the extreme diversity of the Swiss-German press, especially after the success of the free newspapers available at every train and bus stop and trams – a novelty that reduced the number of newspapers and weeklies bought at newsstands by 70%, even before the online newspaper revolution decisively led to extinction Swiss independent publishers[159].

The crisis became serious at the start of the new century: in 2006, the Ticinese financier Tito Tettamanti bought out Weltwoche, which imposed the faithful Roger Köppel as editor, who transformed Weltwoche into a sports hall for the ultra-conservatives of German-speaking Europe[160] – and a little later it worked. official property of the magazine and its publisher for the meager sum of 2 million francs[161] directly in the hands of Köppel, even if public opinion continues to believe that Tettamanti is the real occult master[162].

Tito Tettamanti has been a unique character in the history of the world for the last 90 years. Born in 1930, he became the youngest cantonal minister in Swiss history, but had to resign shortly after because he came across a corruption scandal linked to the building. Together with his friend Giangiorgio Spiess, he founded the trust group Fidinam, which for almost 40 years has been the hidden interface for thousands of illegal transactions from Italian customers[163] – a sprawling squid on which only Gian Trepp’s famous book, “Swiss Connection”, provides a cast analytical light – and showed its relationships with a variety of business lawyers from Geneva, Luxembourg, Zurich, Ticino, England and even Bulgaria[164]. Tettamanti and Fidinam go (as mediators, never convicted) in the stories of bribes of ENI[165], in the financing of the P2 Masonic lodge[166], in the bankruptcy of Banco Ambrosiano and the murder of Roberto Calvi[167], in the successful story of the mafia banker Michele Sindona[168], in the “mother of all bribes” of Enimont[169], in the bankruptcy of the white credit bank as a main actor…[170]

In 1994, after a long career in global finance, Tettamanti decided to become a political thinker and wrote the essay “Quelle Europe?[171], followed by “Manifesto of a Liberal Society[172] – two books which anticipate Theocon ideology, imbued with deep economic Darwinism, who believe in war as a method of alleviating harmful overpopulation of the planet and do not dream of a united Europe (which Tettamanti has always opposed), but an underground global network of oligarchic and plutocratic power which, thanks to populism, can manipulate the apparent, collapsed, ineffective and contradictory structures of democracy so that freedom is still worth more than the good of the community[173].

Bannon knows his writings well and spends entire weeks in Tito Tettamanti’s villa in Castagnola in the spring of 2019 preparing for the birth of the coalition between European populist forces[174]. No one is therefore surprised when in September 2020 the investigations of the Milanese justice extend to the monetary network hidden by LegaNord in Switzerland, which was created to hide the origin of donations and to illegally save taxes and control party funding laws (including Salvini’s dolphin Giancarlo Giorgetti faces trial[175]). The investigation shows that Tito Tettamanti’s financial group would have managed this black money[176]. A glorious coincidence: LegaNord’s fiduciary contacts in Ticino are exactly the same as those of M5S, only the intermediary changes: the former employee of the Casaleggio family, Marcello Dettori[177].

These connections date back to the 2019 European tour. The first meeting between Salvini and Bannon is described in a documentary film “The Brink” by Alyson Klayman and takes place on September 7, 2018 in Milan. Both are presented by Federico Arata, who, as Klayman recounts, joined the Movement with enthusiasm and also accompanied Belgian lawyer Mischaël Modrikamen, national secretary of the Walloon People’s Party and spokesperson for the Movement – the man who was also the MEP Philip Claeys, head of the ALEC for the European Union, was involved in the new organization of Steve Bannon[178].

In the documentary, Modrikamen recalls that one of the key points of the meeting was to convince Salvini to form a government with the M5S and to relinquish government posts in order to enable the first alliance between populists and Theocon governments in Europe – and Bannon told him after having already met and convinced Luigi Di Maio[179]. Two days after the first meeting, Bannon will refer to Salvini, affectionately known as “Brother Salvini“, from the stage in Lille, France, in front of an audience of Front National delegates[180].

In ten days, the Cambridge Analytica scandal would have erupted amid controversy over the involvement of a hidden Italian party[181]. With regard to Cambridge Analytica, the holding company (SCL Group Ltd.) which controlled this company would have drawn up a project for an Italian party in 2012 which had succeeded in the 1990s, then exhausted its momentum and innovation, but which was in a major experiment in the spaces of a right-wing populist position could have been revived and transformed[182].

This project found the means to launch a year later with the creation of Cambridge Analytica, thanks to the sponsorship of large companies. It is a long-term project, as conceived by Hermann Schmitz, the head of the Metallgesellschaft and later founder of IG Farben, the largest chemical and pharmaceutical industry of all time – and who went on to convinced the industrial entrepreneurs of post-war Germany to rely on Adolf Hitler[183]. Since then, exactly 90 years have passed. We need to prepare for the worst – and use the tools of democracy to stop Philip Morris or anyone else from gaining the upper hand and bypassing politics and democracy.

The fact that they can win a majority in elections by manipulating consumption and taste must be limited thanks to the constitutional rules intended to ensure freedom after World War II. Rules that were then written while awareness of the danger of populism, fascism and Nazism was still very strong. Let us never forget what Plato wrote more than two thousand years ago: democracy, if it is not defended, always degenerates into autocracy[184].


[1] https://www.ilriformista.it/casaleggio-a-libro-paga-della-philip-morris-tutti-i-dettagli-del-maxi-finanziamento-al-grillini-178421/?refresh_ce

[2] https://www.ilriformista.it/call-center-di-philip-morris-aperto-grazie-alla-regia-del-sottosegretario-turco-m5s-178797/

[3] https://www.ildenaro.it/processo-cassandra-bat-si-costituisce-parte-civile/ ; https://www.liberoquotidiano.it/news/italpress/25176716/processo-cassandra-philip-morris-massima-fiducia-nella-giustizia-.html

[4] https://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/1998/11/28/da-cusani-al-suicidio-gardini-la-madre.html ; https://www.cinquantamila.it/storyTellerArticolo.php?storyId=0000002243950

[5] Atti del Tribunale Penale di Milano, “La maxitangente Enimont”; Kaos Edizioni, Milano 1997; Andrea Greco, Giuseppe Oddo, “Lo Stato parallelo: la prima inchiesta sull’ENI, tra politica, servizi segreti, scandali finanziari e nuove guerre”, Chiarelettere, Milano 2016

[6] 1984.01.01 P2 e Philip Morris, pages 55-57 – Giorgio Pisanò, “Relazione di minoranza” alla Commissione Parlamentare d’Inchiesta sulla Loggia Massonica P2

[7] Partito-Radicale-e-droga, “Appunto riservatissimo del Senato della Repubblica”, pages 24-25

[8] 1984.01.01 P2 e Philip Morris, pages 55-57 – Giorgio Pisanò, “Relazione di minoranza” alla Commissione Parlamentare d’Inchiesta sulla Loggia Massonica P2

[9] Partito-Radicale-e-droga, “Appunto riservatissimo del Senato della Repubblica”, pages 1-3

[10] 1984.01.01 P2 e Philip Morris, pages 55-57 – Giorgio Pisanò, “Relazione di minoranza” alla Commissione Parlamentare d’Inchiesta sulla Loggia Massonica P2

[11] https://www.linkedin.com/in/aleardo-buzzi-2a412b1ab/?originalSubdomain=mc

[12] https://lanostrastoria.ch/entries/PEmXdOj78gz ; http://archiviostorico.gazzetta.it/2002/dicembre/04/fumo_ga_0_0212046945.shtml

[13] http://www.fondazionememmo.it/la-fondazione/ ; https://www.infiltrato.it/inchieste/italia/massoneria-italiana-dalle-liste-di-gelli-ad-oggi-magistratura-giornalismo-economia-e-imprenditoria/ ; https://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/1993/10/01/il-nostro-agente-montecarlo.html

[14] Partito-Radicale-e-droga, “Appunto riservatissimo del Senato della Repubblica”, pages 3-6

[15] Partito-Radicale-e-droga, “Appunto riservatissimo del Senato della Repubblica”, pages 15-18

[16] Orecla SA Lausanne

[17] Orecla Services SA Lausanne


[19] https://www.ansa.it/emiliaromagna/notizie/madeiner/2015/10/01/intertaba-cambia-nome-p.morris-bologna_45d75a56-c763-4956-afdc-23d1d2f85db1.html

[20] 2008.12.01 Marco Greggi on Intertaba – Marco Greggi, “The Concept of ‘Permanent Establishment of a Group of Companies’ in a Recent Case of the Italian Supreme Court (Corte Di Cassazione)”, SSRN Electronic Journal / Elsevier, Amsterdam 2009

[21] https://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/1997/10/28/philip-morris-11-rinvii-per-maxi.html ; https://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/1996/07/22/segnali-di-fumo-del-signore-dei.html

[22] 1998.06.01 P2 e Philip Morris – Atti Parlamentari – resoconto del dibattito in aula del 1° giugno 1998

[23] http://www.assosoftware.it/attachments/article/2352/AssoSoftwareDayPress06122019.pdf, pages 25-27

[24] https://www.lagone.it/2020/05/23/philip-morris-indagati-lex-ad-italia-altri-2-manager-della-multinazionale-del-tabacco-concorso-corruzione-funzionari-pubblic/

[25] Klemens Von Metternich, „Briefwechsel“, 2. Band, Gerold, Vienna 1881, Seite 181-182

[26] https://www.ilriformista.it/call-center-di-philip-morris-aperto-grazie-alla-regia-del-sottosegretario-turco-m5s-178797/

[27] https://it.iqos.com/it/prodotti/scopri-iqos/cosa-e-iqos

[28] https://www.ilriformista.it/casaleggio-a-libro-paga-della-philip-morris-tutti-i-dettagli-del-maxi-finanziamento-al-grillini-178421/?refresh_ce

[29] https://www.ilriformista.it/casaleggio-a-libro-paga-della-philip-morris-tutti-i-dettagli-del-maxi-finanziamento-al-grillini-178421/?refresh_ce

[30] https://www.iss.it/tabacco-sigarette-elettroniche

[31] https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/28/5/582 ; https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/27/Suppl_1/s30.abstract?etoc https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/27/Suppl_1/s37?ijkey=7d0c8d4b6bc8dabf2dcaf7f19336bcfbc23f4df0&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha ; https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2628970

[32] https://tobaccoendgame.it/news/che-fine-ha-fatto-la-relazione-dellistituto-superiore-di-sanita-sulla-tossicita-delle-iqos/

[33] http://www.salute.gov.it/imgs/C_17_pubblicazioni_2916_allegato.pdf, pages 21-22

[34] https://www.ilriformista.it/casaleggio-a-libro-paga-della-philip-morris-tutti-i-dettagli-del-maxi-finanziamento-al-grillini-178421/?refresh_ce

[35] https://www.ilriformista.it/casaleggio-a-libro-paga-della-philip-morris-tutti-i-dettagli-del-maxi-finanziamento-al-grillini-178421/?refresh_ce

[36] https://www.ilriformista.it/cinquestellopoli-la-procura-di-milano-apre-un-fascicolo-sui-soldi-di-philip-morris-a-casaleggio-180311/

[37] https://www.huffingtonpost.it/entry/caso-casaleggio-philip-morris-querela-il-riformista-non-finanziamo-i-partiti_it_5fc8dffdc5b6437be6fb73fc ; https://www.ilriformista.it/scandalo-philip-morris-casaleggio-ci-querelano-senza-smentire-e-solo-intimidazione-180640/

[38] https://www.ilriformista.it/casaleggio-a-libro-paga-della-philip-morris-tutti-i-dettagli-del-maxi-finanziamento-al-grillini-178421/?refresh_ce

[39] https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2020/11/17/dino-giarrusso-donazioni-dei-lobbisti-alleurodeputato-m5s-segnalato-ai-probiviri/6006734/

[40] https://ilmanifesto.it/accuse-a-dino-giarrusso-prese-soldi-da-lobbisti/ ; https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2020/12/03/consulenza-casaleggio-associati-alla-philip-morris-la-procura-di-milano-ha-aperto-un-fascicolo-conoscitivo/6025084/ ; https://www.liberoquotidiano.it/news/politica/25270036/dino-giarrusso-m5s-lobby-finanziamento-soldi-irbm-pomezia-vaccino-coronavirus.html

[41] https://www.huffingtonpost.it/entry/caso-casaleggio-philip-morris-querela-il-riformista-non-finanziamo-i-partiti_it_5fc8dffdc5b6437be6fb73fc ; https://www.ilriformista.it/scandalo-philip-morris-casaleggio-ci-querelano-senza-smentire-e-solo-intimidazione-180640/

[42] https://www.ilriformista.it/cinquestellopoli-philip-morris-annuncia-querela-al-riformista-sansonetti-hanno-dato-2-milioni-a-casaleggio-punto-180438/?refresh_ce

[43] https://www.ilriformista.it/scandalo-philip-morris-casaleggio-incontro-conte-e-la-legge-antifumo-spari-la-coincidenza-180273/?refresh_ce

[44] https://www.ilriformista.it/bonifici-di-philip-morris-a-casaleggio-ecco-il-file-con-tutti-i-pagamenti-dei-24-milioni-180515/ ; https://www.lagone.it/2020/12/04/bonifici-di-philip-morris-a-casaleggio-ecco-il-file-con-tutti-i-pagamenti-dei-24-milioni/

[45] https://www.ilriformista.it/bonifici-di-philip-morris-a-casaleggio-ecco-il-file-con-tutti-i-pagamenti-dei-24-milioni-180515/

[46] https://www.ilpost.it/2018/02/06/movimento-5-stelle-rousseau/ ; http://www.isimbolidelladiscordia.it/2017/12/il-nuovo-m5s-la-terza-associazione-con.html

[47] https://www.ilpost.it/2018/02/06/movimento-5-stelle-rousseau/ ; http://www.isimbolidelladiscordia.it/2017/12/il-nuovo-m5s-la-terza-associazione-con.html

[48] https://www.open.online/2019/07/04/espulsioni-5-stelle-tutti-i-caduti-durante-la-legislatura-gialloverde-la-videoscheda/ ; https://www.huffingtonpost.it/news/espulsioni-m5s/ ; https://www.repubblica.it/politica/2020/10/16/news/m5s_espulsi_senatrice_pacifico_e_deputato_romano-270788182/

[49] https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/associazionerousseau/documenti/statuto_MoVimento_2017.pdf

[50] https://www.ilpost.it/2018/02/06/movimento-5-stelle-rousseau/ ; http://www.isimbolidelladiscordia.it/2017/12/il-nuovo-m5s-la-terza-associazione-con.html

[51] Nicola Biondo, Marco Canestrari, “Supernova. I segreti, le bugie e i tradimenti del MoVimento 5 Stelle: storia vera di una nuova casta che si pretendeva anticasta”, Ponte alle Grazie / Adriano Salani Editore, Milano 2018; Nicola Biondo, Marco Canestrari, “Il sistema Casaleggio. Partito, soldi, relazioni: ecco il piano per manomettere la democrazia”, Ponte alle Grazie / Adriano Salani Editore, Milano 2019; http://confini.blog.rainews.it/2019/12/06/crisi-5stelle-chi-comanda-nel-movimento-intervista-a-nicola-biondo/

[52] Oggetto di una famosa scenetta di Beppe Grillo del 1983: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Gs97Ke2UUY

[53] https://www.giurcost.org/decisioni/1979/0000s-79.html ; http://www.radioradicale.it/scheda/59874/il-punto-sullattivita-e-sulla-collocazione-politica-del-psdi ; https://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/1984/05/01/nicolazzi-anti-longo-sogna-per-il-psdi.html

[54] Nicola Biondo, Marco Canestrari, “Supernova. I segreti, le bugie e i tradimenti del MoVimento 5 Stelle: storia vera di una nuova casta che si pretendeva anticasta”, Ponte alle Grazie / Adriano Salani Editore, Milano 2018; Nicola Biondo, Marco Canestrari, “Il sistema Casaleggio. Partito, soldi, relazioni: ecco il piano per manomettere la democrazia”, Ponte alle Grazie / Adriano Salani Editore, Milano 2019; http://confini.blog.rainews.it/2019/12/06/crisi-5stelle-chi-comanda-nel-movimento-intervista-a-nicola-biondo/

[55] https://www.abc.es/internacional/abci-chavismo-financio-movimiento-5-estrellas-gobierna-italia-202006142244_noticia.html?ref=https:%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F ; https://www.primapress.it/mondo/165-attualita/mondo/fondi-neri-al-m5s-dal-venezuela-ma-davide-casaleggio-smentisce-con-fermezza.html ; https://www.ilgiornale.it/news/mondo/tre-miliardi-maduro-finanziare-movimento-5-stelle-1870396.html ; https://www.ansa.it/sito/notizie/politica/2020/06/15/abc-chavez-finanzio-lm5s-nel-2010-_4591e8b3-4c2e-4734-8cae-683c03dc3f11.html ; https://www.lastampa.it/esteri/2020/06/15/news/il-giornale-spagnolo-abc-nel-2010-maduro-lo-finanzio-il-m5s-con-3-5-milioni-di-euro-1.38969779 ; https://www.repubblica.it/politica/2020/06/15/news/quotidiano_spagnolo_abc_chavez_m5s-259248909/

[56] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIV-2PvktC0

[57] http://www.mondomania.com/cervello/BeppeGrillo/Gin02.htm

[58] http://www.beppegrillo.it/5-giorni-5-stelle-pignoriamopalazzochigi/

[59] https://www.ilgiornale.it/news/politica/lello-liguori-virus-vi-dico-grillo-guadagnava-nero-1099393.html ; https://www.imolaoggi.it/2019/10/27/lello-liguori-ho-dato-300-milioni-a-beppe-grillo-in-nero/ ; https://www.mag24.es/2019/10/24/non-mi-ha-mai-querelato-perche-dicevo-la-verita-parla-il-manager-che-per-anni-pagato-in-nero-per-i-suoi-spettacoli/ ; https://www.vanityfair.it/news/italia/2012/08/30/beppe-grillo-benigni-festa-unita

[60] https://www.ilmessaggero.it/italia/giornalista_aggredito_grillo_ospedale_cosa_e_successo_7_settembre_2020-5448383.html ; https://www.ilgiornale.it/news/interni/aggredito-limpresario-che-ha-svelato-trucco-dei-soldi-nero-1020275.html

[61] https://espresso.repubblica.it/palazzo/2013/03/07/news/grillo-l-autista-e-la-cognata-1.51653 ; https://st.ilsole24ore.com/art/notizie/2013-03-07/lespresso-costa-rica-societa-140753.shtml?uuid=AbbXonbH ; https://st.ilsole24ore.com/art/notizie/2013-03-08/grillo-irride-blog-inchiesta-133130.shtml ; http://www.tg1.rai.it/dl/tg1/2010/articoli/ContentItem-e9af0c26-010b-449d-acf8-8f1fafb11faa.html?refresh_ce

[62] http://legislature.camera.it/_dati/leg06/lavori/schedela/trovaschedacamera.asp?pdl=2860

[63] https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2013/12/28/13G00194/sg

[64] https://milano.corriere.it/19_maggio_12/gherardo-colombo-sulla-corruzione-abbiamo-perso-ora-tocca-ragazzi-7fad41ac-742b-11e9-a46f-84c039eb72db.shtml ; https://www.rivieraoggi.it/2019/03/29/281903/gherardo-colombo-la-corruzione-oggi-e-come-nel-1992-soltanto-e-piu-anarchica/

[65] http://occupywallst.org/about/

[66] https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/dec/29/fbi-coordinated-crackdown-occupy

[67] https://www.romatoday.it/attualita/video-dieci-anni-retake-campagna-philip-morris-mozziconi-.html ; https://mariateresabellucci.it/2020/12/07/la-raggi-dovrebbe-chiarire-eventuali-legami-con-il-mondo-del-tabacco/ ; https://www.adnkronos.com/2020/09/22/arriva-roma-cambiagesto-campagna-contro-inquinamento-mozziconi-sigarette_IBu4zSt9iIa3uNmgvAVgFI.html?refresh_ce

[68] https://www.globalist.it/politics/2016/05/08/grillo-invade-gli-usa-occupy-wall-street-si-allea-con-m5s-49869.htmlhttps://www.ilsussidiario.net/news/politica/2013/10/7/beppe-grillo-occupy-wall-street-propone-l-alleanza-con-il-movimento-5-stelle/433333/ ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8Tw4yqu6pc&list=ULZJhGSsosjWg&index=478 ; https://www.beppegrillo.it/passaparola-occupy-wall-street-chiama-movimento-5-stelle-micah-white/

[69] https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gustavo_Cardoso5/publication/301867379_Movilizacion_social_y_redes_sociales/links/572a5b0708ae2efbfdbc1f6c/Movilizacion-social-y-redes-sociales.pdf, page 49, pages 64-67


[71] https://www.prwatch.org/news/2012/03/11328/occupy-wall-street-outs-alec-corporations ; https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/the-battle-for-the-soul-of-occupy-wall-street-189485/ ; https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/feb/20/occupy-movement-targets-corporate-interest-group ; https://www.commondreams.org/organization/occupy-wall-street

[72] https://www.guilford.edu/profile/cravenkl

[73] Krista Craven, Torin Monahan, Priscilla Regan, “Compromised Trust: DHS Fusion Centers’ Policing of the Occupy Wall Street Movement”, British Sociological Association, Durham (UK) 2015, § 4.10 and 4.11 – see also in https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.5153/sro.3608

[74] Krista Craven, Torin Monahan, Priscilla Regan, “Compromised Trust: DHS Fusion Centers’ Policing of the Occupy Wall Street Movement”, British Sociological Association, Durham (UK) 2015, § 4.10 and 4.11 – see also in https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.5153/sro.3608

[75] Krista Craven, Torin Monahan, Priscilla Regan, “Compromised Trust: DHS Fusion Centers’ Policing of the Occupy Wall Street Movement”, British Sociological Association, Durham (UK) 2015, § 4.10 and 4.11 – see also in https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.5153/sro.3608

[76] Krista Craven, Torin Monahan, Priscilla Regan, “Compromised Trust: DHS Fusion Centers’ Policing of the Occupy Wall Street Movement”, British Sociological Association, Durham (UK) 2015, § 4.10 and 4.11 – see also in https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.5153/sro.3608

[77] Nicola Biondo, Marco Canestrari, “Supernova. I segreti, le bugie e i tradimenti del MoVimento 5 Stelle: storia vera di una nuova casta che si pretendeva anticasta”, Ponte alle Grazie / Adriano Salani Editore, Milano 2018; Nicola Biondo, Marco Canestrari, “Il sistema Casaleggio. Partito, soldi, relazioni: ecco il piano per manomettere la democrazia”, Ponte alle Grazie / Adriano Salani Editore, Milano 2019; http://confini.blog.rainews.it/2019/12/06/crisi-5stelle-chi-comanda-nel-movimento-intervista-a-nicola-biondo/

[78]All animals are equal”, “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others”, “At the end, the creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which” – George Orwell, “Animal Farm”, Secker & Warburg, London 1945

[79] https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Corporations_that_Have_Cut_Ties_to_ALEC ; https://escholarship.org/content/qt6vh0q283/qt6vh0q283_noSplash_0728f5f5ec8e9ea179c5390e7dd81e92.pdf, pages 351-355

[80] https://ilnavigatorecurioso.myblog.it/2013/04/15/la-civilta-sopravvivera-al-capitalismo/ ; https://ilnavigatorecurioso.myblog.it/2013/04/08/il-mistero-del-video-di-casaleggio-sul-nuovo-ordine-mondiale/

[81] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sV8MwBXmewU


[83] https://gaiaeros.com/2011/07/15/ingenious/ ; https://comune-info.net/sfida-allesibizione-del-potere-tossico/ ; https://www.huffingtonpost.it/vandana-shiva/diffondere-la-democrazia-della-terra-ai-tempi-di-trump_a_22125969/

[84] https://www.huffingtonpost.it/2016/09/20/renzi-philip-morris-lobby-tabacco_n_12099508.html

[85] http://www.nonluoghi.info/old/grillo1.html ; https://www.tgvallesusa.it/lobby-del-tabacco-arriva-il-regalo-del-governo-in-barba-allue/ ; http://www.beppegrillo.it/5-giorni-5-stelle-pignoriamopalazzochigi/  ; http://www.mondomania.com/cervello/BeppeGrillo/Gin02.htm

[86] https://espresso.repubblica.it/palazzo/2009/10/12/news/l-oro-delle-fondazioni-br-il-boom-dei-think-tank-1.16301 ; http://www.osservatoriosullalegalita.org/10/acom/07lug2/1414roseticapol.htm ; https://lists.peacelink.it/economia/2011/01/msg00002.html

[87] https://altreconomia.it/fumo-negli-occhi/

[88] http://www.report.rai.it/dl/docs/1512567348808lobbisti_report.pdf

[89] https://www.huffingtonpost.it/2016/09/20/renzi-philip-morris-lobby-tabacco_n_12099508.html

[90] https://www.ansa.it/emiliaromagna/notizie/2020/01/23/zingaretti-visita-philip-morris_6968a3f7-b888-4eeb-8a4e-315a6f71e1a6.html

[91] https://www.adnkronos.com/soldi/economia/2018/10/31/bologna-confronto-sulla-smoke-free-society_RuffiCIfSH1MuQeehAHGYO.html ; https://it.finance.yahoo.com/notizie/ist-cattaneo-studia-modello-philip-morris-per-smoke-171217865.html

[92] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foZ5G9EbwT8 ; https://www.corriere.it/economia/15_settembre_05/renzi-forum-ambrosetti-l-italia-non-piu-problema-ue-a28d3246-53d1-11e5-8d8b-01b5b32840a1.shtml ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpWd7LyUQiU

[93] https://www.ambrosetti.eu/alta-direzione/

[94] http://www.assindnu.it/attachments/article/4043/ITA%20Report%20Ambrosetti%20European%20Investibility%20ExSum.pdf

[95] https://www.desmogblog.com/acton-institute ; https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Acton_Institute ; https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/suppl/2015/02/06/tobaccocontrol-2014-051919.DC1/tobaccocontrol-2014-051919supp_appendix2.pdf ; https://judithcurry.com/2014/10/22/myths-and-realities-of-renewable-energy/

[96] https://www.pmi.com/markets/italy/it/news/details?articleId=philip-morris-italia-inaugura-il-digital-information-service-center-disc-a-taranto ; https://www.askanews.it/economia/2020/11/06/philip-morris-inaugura-digital-information-service-center-a-taranto-pn_20201106_00079/

[97] https://www.iltempo.it/economia/2020/11/26/gallery/philip-morris-italia-e-il-ministero-delle-politiche-agricole-prorogano-il-verbale-d-intesa-per-la-tabacchicoltura-25361402/

[98] https://www.italiaoggi.it/archivio/tabacco-intesa-con-philip-morris-1490625

[99] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y6swqBtksgM ; https://www.editorialedomani.it/fatti/processo-cassandra-su-philip-morris-la-bat-si-costituisce-parte-civile-ozji4u5i ; https://www.iltempo.it/italpress/2020/11/09/news/processo-cassandra-philip-morris-massima-fiducia-nella-giustizia–25176718/

[100] http://dati.camera.it/ocd/aic.rdf/aic4_08258_13 ; https://www.italiaoggi.it/archivio/denuncia-lega-alle-finanze-promossi-quattro-indagati-316987

[101] http://dati.camera.it/ocd/aic.rdf/aic4_08258_13 ; https://www.italiaoggi.it/archivio/denuncia-lega-alle-finanze-promossi-quattro-indagati-316987

[102] http://dati.camera.it/ocd/aic.rdf/aic4_08258_13 ; https://www.italiaoggi.it/archivio/denuncia-lega-alle-finanze-promossi-quattro-indagati-316987

[103] https://www.vigilanzatv.it/tg2-intervista-complottista-allideologo-di-trump-la-denuncia-di-michele-anzaldi/

[104] https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/96994/FIORELLO_PROVERA/history/7

[105] https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meps/en/24030/PHILIP_CLAEYS/history/7

[106] https://twitter.com/philip_claeys/status/412151971303673856?lang=de

[107] https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/DCL-7-2011-0043_EN.pdf ; https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/DCL-7-2010-0042_EN.pdf

[108] https://web.archive.org/web/20120412112927/http://www.alec.org/task-forces/international-relations/international-delegates/

[109] https://web.archive.org/web/20120413223732/http://www.alec.org/task-forces/international-relations

[110] https://www.larena.it/media/video/tabacco-firmato-accordo-philip-morris-investe-in-italia-1.7225264 ; https://www.ansa.it/sito/videogallery/economia/2019/03/28/tabacco-firmato-accordo-philip-morris-investe-in-italia_cce6ed53-f1ef-4eba-86a4-19f40081840f.html

[111] https://it.notizie.yahoo.com/philip-morris-zaia-accordo-garantisce-un-futuro-sostenibile-171118848.html

[112] https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20150512006795/en/NexPoint-Residential-Trust-Appoints-Arthur-Laffer-James ; https://www.politico.com/story/2017/05/15/donald-trump-fake-news-238379 ; https://aeispeakers.com/speakers/arthur-laffer/ ; https://evidence.care/team/arthur-b-laffer-phd/

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[114] https://it.sputniknews.com/opinioni/201906227799361-salvini-cerca-sostegno-a-washington-senza-rinnegare-al-dialogo-con-la-russia/ ; https://www.ilgiornale.it/news/mondo/salvini-faccia-faccia-mike-pompeo-washington-1712478.html

[115] https://ambwashingtondc.esteri.it/ambasciata_washington/en/sala-stampa/dall_ambasciata/2019/06/vice-presidente-del-consiglio-e.html ; https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jun/17/matteo-salvini-italy-closer-washington-ties-as-eu-tensions-rise ; https://www.ilgiornale.it/news/politica/successo-trump-fisco-leggero-1717290.html ; https://it.sputniknews.com/opinioni/201906227799361-salvini-cerca-sostegno-a-washington-senza-rinnegare-al-dialogo-con-la-russia/ ; https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/1141743/EU-news-Donald-Trump-news-Matteo-Salvini-Italy-USA-latest-update-Washington-EU ; https://www.vigilanzatv.it/tg2-intervista-complottista-allideologo-di-trump-la-denuncia-di-michele-anzaldi/

[116] https://www.atr.org/ ; https://it.insideover.com/politica/chi-e-grover-norquist-luomo-incontrato-da-salvini-per-parlare-di-tasse.html

[117] https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Grover_Norquist#cite_ref-Noble_Ellington_NPR_3-0 ; https://www.republicreport.org/2012/alec-lobbyists-titanic/

[118] https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/global-warming/climate-deniers/front-groups/americans-for-tax-reform-atr/

[119] https://www.energyandpolicy.org/grover-norquist-and-americans-for-tax-reforms-deceptive-campaigns-for-dirty-energy-and-big-tobacco/

[120] https://progressive.org/dispatches/norquist-tells-alec-wants-u.s.-revive-decapitation/

[121] Nina J. Easton, “Gang of Five: Leaders at the center of the conservative crusade”, Simon & Schuster, New York 2001

[122] Jack Abramoff, “Capitol punishment: The Hard Truth About Washington Corruption from America’s Most Notorious Lobbyist”, WND Books, Washington DC 2011

[123] https://www.c-span.org/video/?49974-1/life-career-ralph-reed

[124] https://archive.commondreams.org/scriptfiles/headlines06/0624-07.htm

[125] https://archive.commondreams.org/scriptfiles/headlines06/0624-07.htm

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[127] https://www.au.org/church-state/may-2010-church-state/people-events/ex-christian-coalition-head-ralph-reed-resurfaces ; https://www.gq.com/story/ralph-reed-gop-lobbyist-jack-abramoff

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[129] 2006.06.25 Nonprofit Groups Funneled Money For Abramoff

[130] https://www.wsj.com/articles/lobbyist-jack-abramoff-charged-with-fraud-sued-by-sec-11593116417

[131] https://www.marketwatch.com/story/convicted-fraudster-jack-abramoff-to-plead-guilty-in-cryptocurrency-scam-2020-06-25

[132] https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2019/05/22/fondazione-sciacca-la-onlus-catto-sovranista-in-cui-si-incontrano-salvini-monarchici-ultradestra-e-nemici-del-papa/5178239/ ; https://www.alessioporcu.it/articoli/ombre-nere-dietro-gara-certosa-trisulti/

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[141] https://www.ilgiornale.it/news/cronache/nasce-chiesa-sovranista-e-anti-bergoglio-1594031.html

[142] http://www.fondazionegiuseppesciacca.org/organigramma/

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[146] https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2018/03/21/news/bannon_l_ex_stratega_di_trump_la_mente_di_cambridge_analytica-191810903/

[147] https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jan/09/steve-bannon-leaves-breitbart-after-expressing-regret-over-trump-remarks

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[149] https://www.open.online/2020/08/20/steve-bannon-amici-italiani-salvini-meloni/

[150] https://www.agi.it/estero/trump_licenzia_steve_bannon-2065929/news/2017-08-18/ ; https://www.agi.it/politica/salvini_bannon_cambridge_analytica_facebook-3676464/news/2018-03-24/

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[152] https://www.open.online/2020/08/20/steve-bannon-amici-italiani-salvini-meloni/

[153] https://www.weltwoche.ch/steve-bannon.html ;

[154] https://www.weltwoche.ch/ausgaben/2020-43/weltwoche-international/wi-bannon-die-weltwoche-ausgabe-43-2020.html ; https://www.weltwoche.ch/ausgaben/2018-9/interviews/steve-bannon-italian-election.html

[155] https://www.agi.it/politica/salvini_bannon_cambridge_analytica_facebook-3676464/news/2018-03-24/

[156] https://www.agi.it/estero/intervista_marine_le_pen_lega_movimento_5_stelle-3375128/news/2018-01-16/

[157] https://www.giornalettismo.com/augusto-sinagra-casapound-gelli-di-maio/ ; http://www.salvo5puntozero.tv/il-professor-augusto-sinagra-spiega-perche-dalla-ue-si-puo-uscire-29102014/

[158] https://www.weltwoche.ch/ueber-uns/geschichte.html

[159] https://www.swissinfo.ch/ger/direktedemokratie/dunkelkammer-demokratie—serie_die-leiden-der-schweizer-mediendemokratie/45519640 ; https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/medien/zeitungszusammenschluss-verdeutlicht-schweizer-medienkrise-17036422.html

[160] https://www.nzz.ch/articleEBOIL-1.48581?reduced=true ; https://www.tagesspiegel.de/meinung/portraet-titotettamanti-schweizer-investor-geldverlust-ist-gegen-meine-prinzipien/1679574.html

[161] https://www.aargauerzeitung.ch/schweiz/koeppel-zahlte-fuer-die-weltwoche-nur-zwei-millionen-franken-119428296

[162] https://theatertribunale.wordpress.com/tag/die-zurcher-prozesse/ ; https://www.woz.ch/-3f2d ; https://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/schweiz/standard/roger-koeppel-besitzt-weltwoche-angeblich-allein/story/11714360 ;  https://theatertribunale.wordpress.com/2013/05/11/die-zurcher-prozesse-eine-demokratieubung/

[163] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 175-189; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[164] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 46-64; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[165] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 75-88; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[166] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 68-74, pages 137-150; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[167] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 126-136; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[168] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 126-136; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[169] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 89-107; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[170] http://studimonetari.org/laconnessionesvizzera.pdf, pages 175-189; see also: Gian Trepp, “Swiss Connection”, Unionsverlag, Zürich 1996

[171] Tito Tettamanti, „Welches Europa? das Europa der Kaufleute oder das Europa der Bürokraten?“, Amman Verlag, Zürich 1994

[172] Tito Tettamanti, Alfredo Bernasconi, “Manifesto di una società liberale”, Sperling & Kupfer, Milano 1994

[173] Tito Tettamanti, “I sette peccati del capitale. La risposta di un imprenditore”, Sperling & Kupofer, Milano 2002; Tito Tettamanti, „Welches Europa? Das Europa der Kaufleute oder das Europa der Bürokraten?“, Amman Verlag, Zürich 1994; Tito Tettamanti, Alfredo Bernasconi, “Manifesto di una società liberale”, Sperling & Kupfer, Milano 1994

[174] https://www.zeit.de/2018/12/steve-bannon-populismus-nationalismus-italien-frankreich-schweiz?utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F

[175] https://www.corriere.it/politica/20_settembre_17/lega-l-inchiesta-contabili-dubbi-movimenti-bilancio-757d788e-f925-11ea-b4b0-f49c5435d3f2.shtml

[176] https://www.open.online/2020/09/18/inchiesta-commercialisti-lega-finanziaria-rete-sovranista-soldi-estero/ ; https://www.lastampa.it/cronaca/2020/09/18/news/lega-la-rete-sovranista-per-nascondere-i-soldi-all-estero-1.39318666 ; https://www.tio.ch/ticino/attualita/1462466/fidinam-tettamanti-nome-inchiesta-lega

[177] https://espresso.repubblica.it/attualita/2018/07/12/news/sovranisti-con-la-cassa-in-svizzera-1.324803

[178] https://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/ausland/belgien-verschiedene-ventile-fuer-unzufriedenheit-12743015.html ; https://www.woz.ch/-94b7 ; https://www.francetvinfo.fr/monde/usa/presidentielle/donald-trump/enquete-franceinfo-europeennes-a-quoi-joue-steve-bannon-lancien-conseiller-de-donald-trump-avec-the-movement_3273117.html ; https://www.dhnet.be/actu/belgique/modrikamennous-ne-sommes-pas-d-extreme-droite-5209aa6c3570fb19a88c7eb0

[179] https://www.nextquotidiano.it/matteo-salvini-fondazione-sciacca-report/

[180] https://www.open.online/2020/08/20/steve-bannon-amici-italiani-salvini-meloni/

[181] https://www.agi.it/politica/salvini_bannon_cambridge_analytica_facebook-3676464/news/2018-03-24/

[182] https://www.agi.it/politica/salvini_bannon_cambridge_analytica_facebook-3676464/news/2018-03-24/

[183] Hermann Schmits, “Deutschlands einzige Rettung”, HaDek, Hannover 1931 – see also in https://portal.dnb.de/opac.htm?method=simpleSearch&cqlMode=true&query=idn%3D576067210


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