17 October 2022 in Dossier Voices of Women, Human Rights


She performs in a black dress, the shawl over her shoulders, mourning in her heart. The head bent backwards, the tragic face of a Greek mask. The motions of the body, an aura that exudes charisma and commands respect. Gloomy, fatalistic lyrics, sung in an intense, passionate voice, as only she knows how to express. For years she has been unjustly accused of being an accomplice to a bloodthirsty dictator who wiped out the Portuguese people’s joy of life for almost 40 years… a burden of suffering for a woman tormented since childhood, closed in on herself, the very emblem of loneliness. Who knows: perhaps only at the point of death did Amália Rodrigues find some serenity, did she manage to close the circle of a life of pain.

A pain that she pours into the singing of poignant and melodramatic motifs, like those of fado, the Lusitanian song. Singing that changes every night, because she has always refused to learn the lyrics of the songs, ‘because fado is the expression of my soul’[1]. The slander initially stems from the fact that she became famous while the dictatorship of António de Oliveira Salazar[2], a violent and incompetent man who, with his misguided economic policy, brought Portugal to misery, and maintained power through terror, was being imposed.

His regime opposes all artistic expressions that do not conform to his directives. Like fado, which, by celebrating melancholy and pessimism, appears defeatist and, consequently, incompatible with the image of strength and courage that Salazarism intends to give of itself[3]. So it must be repressed, like all popular music, from the popular bards of the 1930s to the Beatles and the Rolling Stones[4], and whoever whistles the wrong song and is heard by a gendarme risks big time. The older ones, like Amália, bow their heads and keep quiet publicly, pouring their anger and disappointment into the tragic fado[5].

Salazar leaves her alone, he is otherwise occupied: he establishes close ties with the Catholic Church and is inspired by Mussolini’s fascism. Cunningly, he escapes the Second World War by giving the bases in the Azores to the Allies free of charge while simultaneously selling raw materials to the Nazis[6]. After the war, she suffered no reprisals: when Amália took the stage at the legendary Parisian music hall Olympia in January 1957, she was a star at the height of her career, and the regime exploited her image. She sings everywhere, in Rio de Janeiro, Rome and Berlin, advertises Coca-Cola on American television and French songwriters write her passionate ballads. The ‘Queen of Fado’ is the first Portuguese musician to be an international star[7].

The Fado

Fado was born one day, when the wind barely blew and the sky merged with the sea,

on the broadside of a sailing ship, in the chest of a sailor – who, melancholy, sang

Ah, what immense beauty, my land, my mountain, my valley

of leaves, of flowers, of golden fruits, see if you can see the lands of Spain

the beaches of Portugal, the sight clouded by tears

In the mouth of a sailor of a frail sailing ship

dies the sad song says the awakening of desires

Of lips burning with kisses kissing the air, and nothing more – kissing the air, and nothing more

Mother, farewell. Farewell, Maria. Remember well that I here make you an oath:

either I will take you to church, or it will be the God I serve

to bury me at sea. There now ended another day,

when the wind did not blow and the sky merged with the sea,

on the prow of another sailing ship, another sailor stood guard, who, melancholy, sang[8].

Portugal’s greatest writer, Fernando Pessoa, claimed that ‘Fado is neither happy nor sad, it is the weariness of the strong soul, Portugal’s look of contempt at that God in whom it believed and who then abandoned it: in fado the gods return, legitimate and distant’[9]. He knew this well, who lived a double life: insignificant bureaucrat by day, and overwhelming author of aphorisms and cultural debates by night, condemned for life to solitude, so that no one would discover his secret and hand him over to the regime.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the relationship of fado with political power was contradictory. For a while, Salazarism scornfully labelled it ‘choradinho’ – ‘whining’, ‘whiny’, socially useless. The fadistas, however, are indifferent to any irony or sarcasm. They are a closed circle firmly anchored in tradition, snubbing governments and ideologies. Later, the Salazarist regime rehabilitates it, because it needs something to show abroad, and tries to suppress its more polemical traits. And then it is the left that hates him and calls him ‘vadio’ (vagabond), as he is now emptied of all ideological meaning[10].

After the Carnation Revolution, some fado houses became the haunt of exponents of the old regime and supporters of the restoration – but before the dictatorship, socialist and anarchist political song also used fado[11]. And in any case, no fado artist has ever sung the praises of the regime[12]. For the world it is the symbol of the Portuguese soul, and in 2011 it entered the UNESCO lists as an Intangible Heritage of Humanity[13]: thanks also to Amália Rodrigues, who for the whole world is the flagship of Lusitanian culture[14].

A music that is an encounter between Iberian and Brazilian melodies, but rhythmically Afro-American. It is the nostalgic song of European emigrants to Brazil, who in the 19th century used it to accompany reunions and parties[15] and sing of their nostalgia for a home far away and lost forever. In its essence, Fado sings of sentiment, heartache, nostalgia for someone who has gone away, everyday life and achievements. In life, encounters and the lack of them are, in the end, a theme of infinite inspiration[16]. He originated in the slums of Lisbon, and the bourgeoisie falls in love with him when they finally hear Amália’s unmistakable voice – but the lament of a poor, desperate and ignorant population remains[17].

Childhood and success

Amália Rodrigues with her inseparable cigarette, friend to the end[18]

Amália da Piedade Rebordão Rodrigues was officially born in Lisbon on 23 July 1920, but she chooses 1 July as her date of birth because there are doubts about the exact day[19]. Her parents (a housewife and a shoemaker with a passion for music)[20] came from the rural region of Beira Baixa and, like many others, tried their luck in the Portuguese capital, driven by economic hardship[21]. Their father remains jobless. The family is large, Amália has two brothers and four sisters, and the father decides to return to his homeland, leaving Amália with her grandparents[22]. Grandparents who have sixteen children and at least twice as many grandchildren[23]. It is certainly not a carefree childhood, which pervades her already melancholic character[24].

After three years he has to drop out of school to bring some money home, and he is not even ten years old[25]. She does what she can. She is an apprentice seamstress and embroiderer, then works in a chocolate and candy factory[26]. It does not work out, and she becomes a fruit seller at the market on the Cais da Rocha pier, in the Alcântara neighbourhood[27] , where she spends her time singing mainly popular songs and Gardel’s tangos that she learns at the cinema[28]. She is noted for her very particular timbre of voice, which seems to embody the very essence of the city[29]: ‘I have always sung, ever since I was a little girl. At a certain point I was told: ‘You can sing so well. Go to this famous fado bar, you can make music there with a guitarist. So I did’[30].

People really like it. He sings in secret because his family does not want him to perform[31]. The turning point came at the age of 15, when she took part in the Marcha de Alcântara, where she sang accompanied by her guitar for the first time, enrapturing the audience with the powerful sensuality of her voice: she always wore black clothes, a shawl, a sparkling brooch[32]. In 1939, she made her debut[33]: invited to participate in the Concurso da Primavera, a talent-discovery event in which the title of Queen of Fado was being contested, Amália declined to enter as all the other contestants refused to compete with her.

But an impresario recommends her to the most famous Casa de Fados of the time, the Retiro da Severa, in the Mouraria district. Here she began to perform[34]with the best musicians and national ‘fadistas’, including the legendary Alfredo Marceneiro[35] , who gave the final push to her amazing career. In 1940 he made his debut in the revue theatre[36]. She fell in love with an amateur musician, got pregnant, and when he refused a reparatory marriage, she attempted suicide with rat poison[37]. Luckily she is saved, the marriage is celebrated, but lasts only a few years. She loses the baby, and can no longer have children[38]. But she learned love: in 1961 she married the Brazilian entrepreneur Cèsar Séabra, with whom she had already been living with for fifteen years[39].

From the beginning of the 1950s, Amália travelled the world. Her first concert abroad took place in 1943, at a party for the Portuguese ambassador in Madrid[40]. In 1944 she obtained a key role in the operetta Rosa Cantadeira[41] , which she brought to Brazil the following year[42]. In Paris she became famous thanks to the film ‘Os Amantes do Tejo’, and met personalities such as Anthony Quinn, Frank Sinatra, Ava Gardner, Ernest Hemingway[43]. It is a constant struggle against her family, convinced that that world is made up exclusively of perdition and degradation[44]. Only her brother and aunt remain close to her[45].

The main hall of the Retiro Da Severa, the home of Fado in 1938[46]

Amália quickly became Lisbon’s fado star[47]. Initially, her impresario prevented her from recording records, fearing a smaller audience at concerts[48], but people wanted to hear her. Her first record, ‘As penas’, was released in 1945, while in 1947 she made her film debut with ‘Capas Negras’, which is still the most-watched film in the history of Portuguese cinema[49]. But it was her unmistakable voice that brought her success[50]. Fado became her reason for living: Amália says that it is fado that sings through her, and not vice versa[51].

As her fame grew, she began to push the traditional boundaries of the musical genre (previously considered only popular), incorporating Spanish and Mexican rhythms into her songs, using contemporary poets as a source for her lyrics: David Mourão-Ferreira, Pedro Homem de Mello, José Carlos Ary dos Santos[52]. In 1952, the song ‘Coimbra’ reached number two on the Billboard charts in the United States. She made her debut in New York in September of the same year, on the stage of ‘La Vie en Rose’. In 1953, she sang for the first time on NBC television, and the following year she was on the cover of Billboard magazine for the album ‘Amália in Fado & Flamenco’, which reached number one on the US bestseller list[53].

Conspiracy charges and redemption

The poster of the film that made her famous in France[54]

Its international success makes it an ideal identification figure for the mind of Salazar[55], whose regime is seen everywhere as a medieval remnant. From 1926 to 1974 he ruled only thanks to the brutality and continuous espionage methods of the secret police (PIDE)[56]. The henchmen of this organisation forced Amália to participate in events and manifestations desired by the regime, such as on 1 July 1958, when she was forced to take part in the birthday party of the Sporting football team, she being an avid Belenenses fan[57].

People do not know about the threats, and the singer’s fame is tarnished by the suspicion that she may have built her career in the shadow of the regime. At the end of the Second World War, countries such as Spain and Portugal (but also Italy itself) have the problem of rebuilding an international image, expendable also in terms of tourism[58]. According to the opposition, Salazarism propagates in the world the so-called three effe: fado, Fatima and football (especially after the explosion of Eusebio’s star, Benfica’s greatest ever centre forward)[59]. In this ideological image, Amália is the icon and ambassador of a postcard country, behind which lie fear, poverty and backwardness.

After the end of the dictatorship (1974), someone accused her of being a PIDE agent[60]. But Amália never sang for anyone: ‘I always sang fado without thinking about politics’, and ‘I never had the support of any government’[61]. It was only ten years later that the revolution was fully rehabilitated by the socialist government[62]. However, the fadists and intellectuals closest to the former anti-fascist opposition defended her to the hilt[63].

Not only that: in 1974 it is one of her songs that gives the signal for revolution against Salazar[64]. It is the closing song of a show, attended by many militants of the MFA[65] , the Movimento das Forças Armadas[66] , who choose it as a signal to take up arms and go out: at midnight on 25 April 1974 the song, in the original version by José Afonso, plays on the radios[67]. It serves to make all the Portuguese understand that the years of the tyrant are over, and that the army (more unique than rare) has taken control of the country to deliver it into the hands of the people.

Grândola, city of the Moors, land of brotherhood is the people who most command within you, O city.

Within you, O city is the people who most command land of brotherhood, Grândola city of the Moors.

On every corner a friend, on every face equality Grândola city of the Moors land of brotherhood

land of brotherhood, Grândola city of the Moors on every face equality, it is the people who command most.

And in the shadow of a cork-tree that no longer knows how old it is

I swore, Grândola, to have thy will for a companion. Grândola, thy will

I swore to have for a companion in the shade of a cork-tree that no longer knows how old it is[68].

It is the signal for the start of the ‘Carnation Revolution’, named after the flowers that a street vendor offers to the left-wing military in Praça do Comércio, and which puts an end to the fascist dictatorship that has lasted almost fifty years. A song that speaks of fraternity, peace and equality, which the Portuguese military sings in protest against the endless colonial wars that are bleeding the country dry and exterminating its best youth[69].

Amália is hurt by the accusations, however, and isolates herself completely, performing only abroad[70]. Until she discovers she is ill with cancer. Disillusioned with life, she locks herself up in her house in Rua S. Bento in Lisbon[71] , now a museum[72]. As the years passed, rumours began to circulate among the streets full of cafés, monuments and gardens that the singer had secretly financed the Portuguese Communist Party during the Salazar dictatorship[73]. The truth is that she donated money to support the families of political prisoners[74]. But it is the moment of redemption, Portugal ideally apologises to her, throwing itself at her feet, and she once again becomes the queen of fado[75].

The last years

Amália Rodrigues wearing the shirt of her favourite team, Belenenses[76]

Amália Rodrigues clearly distinguishes support for the victims of Salazarism from fado, which was never an expression for political propaganda, but a glimpse into the depths of her own melancholic soul[77]. A profound feeling that has led her to attempt suicide several times, as she recounts in her biography: one of the attempts occurred after the end of her first marriage, the other upon the discovery of cancer. The singer, like fado, loves love, and it is no coincidence, for example, that she has become an icon of the homosexual community, as many of her great friends are[78].

She has a special bond with Italy: since the early 1950s she has performed on several tours, always with enormous success. In the 1970s, in love with Italian popular music, she recorded several records with the great popular classics[79] such as the Risorgimento anthem ‘La bella Gigogin’[80] , Vitti na’ crozza, Ciuri Ciuri, La tarantella and O mia bela madunina. In 1995, he performed two wonderful duets with Neapolitan music legend Roberto Murolo[81]. He has the great ability to transform many foreign songs into ‘fados’, such as Canzone per te by Sergio Endrigo, which the artist, by including it in his repertoire, considers an acquired heritage of fadista music[82]. This bond is immortalised in the triple CD ‘Amália em Itália’[83].

In 1990[84], she was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Santiago, Portugal’s highest honour[85], when she no longer had the strength to sing around the world: she died at the age of 79, on 6 October 1999[86], and the then Prime Minister António Guterres decreed national mourning for three days[87]. Lisbon bade her farewell on one of those bright, clear days, typical of autumn on the Tagus[88]: tens of thousands of people escorted the coffin through the streets of Lisbon[89] while her voice was broadcast through loudspeakers along the streets[90]. As a sign of mourning throughout the country, the electoral campaign is temporarily suspended[91]. She is buried in the Pantheon of her city, among the greatest Portuguese personalities[92].

During her career she released 170 albums in 30 countries, selling more than 30 million copies[93], three times more than the entire population of Portugal[94]. This commitment to music earned her the prestigious Midem (disco de ouro) in 1967 in Cannes[95]. Amália Rodrigues’ last two projects are the 1997 album ‘Segredo’, which collects previously unreleased recordings between 1965 and 1975, and the poetry book ‘Versos’[96]. What remains of her is the memory of her incredible voice and fierce passion imbued with sadness and nostalgia[97], an international star, and at the same time, a deep voice of the most miserable and secret part of her country[98]: ‘I am the liberated fado. When I’m on stage I do what I want. Fado is felt, not understood or explained’[99].

With what voice shall I mourn my sad fate, That in so harsh a passion buried me,

That perhaps the sorrow is not greater, Which time left me, than my love with no more illusions?

But weeping is disregarded in this condition, In which sighing never serves any purpose.

Sad I want to live, For sadness has become the joy of the past.

So I spend my unsatisfied life In this prison to the sound of the hard chain

That afflicts the foot that suffers and feels it. Of so much evil, the cause is pure love,

Owed to one whom I have absent from me, And for whom I risk life and property[100].

That is why she sings songs by successful authors, famous poets, and perfect strangers. Everything becomes part of her myth, almost mystical, like the black shawl, with which Amália appears at all her performances[101]. Amália personifies Portugal, uniting indiscriminately poor and rich, illiterate and educated, old and young, she represents her people with the traits of fatalism and courage, and when she sings her body recalls the wide horizons, shrouded in mist, or bathed in intense light, of a land that stretches towards the infinite sea. Especially so many years later, the gestures accompanied by the sound are astonishing, testimony to the community of feeling of Portuguese music, but also of Arab and Andalusian music, such as flamenco[102]. The world loved her because she was able to belong to the whole world.

The funeral[103]


[1] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[2] https://biography.yourdictionary.com/antonio-de-oliveira-salazar

[3] https://www.barbadillo.it/97498-il-fado-di-amalia-rodrigues-la-voce-che-canto-il-portogallo-nel-mondo/

[4] https://www.laterza.it/scheda-libro/?isbn=9788858141823

[5] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[6] https://www.laterza.it/scheda-libro/?isbn=9788858141823

[7] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[8] O Fado nasceu um dia, quando o vento mal bulia e o céu o mar prolongava, na amurada dum veleiro, no peito dum marinheiro que, estando triste, cantava, que, estando triste, cantava. Ai, que lindeza tamanha, meu chão, meu monte, meu vale, de folhas, flores, frutas de oiro, vê se vês terras de Espanha,areias de Portugal, olhar ceguinho de choro. Na boca dum marinheiro do frágil barco veleiro  morrendo a canção magoada, diz o pungir dos desejos do lábio a queimar de beijos que beija o ar, e mais nada, que beija o ar, e mais nada.

Mãe, adeus. Adeus, Maria. Guarda bem no teu sentido que aqui te faço uma jura: que ou te levo à sacristia, ou foi Deus que foi servido dar-me no mar sepultura.  Ora eis que embora outro dia, quando o vento nem bulia e o céu o mar prolongava, à proa de outro veleiro velava outro marinheiro que, estando triste, cantava, que, estando triste, cantava.

[9] https://www.leggoalgarve.com/amalia-rodrigues-e-litalia-un-amore-che-brilla/

[10] https://www.barbadillo.it/97498-il-fado-di-amalia-rodrigues-la-voce-che-canto-il-portogallo-nel-mondo/

[11] https://giornaledellospettacolo.globalist.it/musica/2019/09/30/amalia-rodrigues-icona-del-fado-che-non-si-oppose-ne-fu-con-il-regime/

[12] https://www.barbadillo.it/97498-il-fado-di-amalia-rodrigues-la-voce-che-canto-il-portogallo-nel-mondo/

[13] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[14] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[15] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[16] https://www.visitportugal.com/it/content/fado

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[18] https://www.portugalresident.com/amalia-da-piedade-rebordao-rodrigues-the-queen-of-fado/

[19] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

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[23] https://biografieonline.it/biografia-amalia-rodrigues

[24] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[25] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[26] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

[27] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[28] https://biografieonline.it/biografia-amalia-rodrigues

[29] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[30] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[31] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[32] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[33] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

[34] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[35] https://www.barbadillo.it/97498-il-fado-di-amalia-rodrigues-la-voce-che-canto-il-portogallo-nel-mondo/

[36] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[37] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[38] https://biografieonline.it/biografia-amalia-rodrigues

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[41] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[42] https://genius.com/artists/Amalia-rodrigues

[43] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

[44] https://biografieonline.it/biografia-amalia-rodrigues

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[51] https://biografieonline.it/biografia-amalia-rodrigues

[52] https://genius.com/artists/Amalia-rodrigues

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[54] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

[55] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Antonio-de-Oliveira-Salazar

[56] https://www.ics.ulisboa.pt/en/projeto/secretPOL

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[58] https://giornaledellospettacolo.globalist.it/musica/2019/09/30/amalia-rodrigues-icona-del-fado-che-non-si-oppose-ne-fu-con-il-regime/

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[64] https://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?id=229&lang=it

[65] https://www.voicebookradio.com/amalia-rodrigues-dolorosa-regina-del-fado/

[66] https://www.positanonews.it/2020/04/la-rivoluzione-dei-garofani-portogallo/3383339/

[67] https://www.voicebookradio.com/amalia-rodrigues-dolorosa-regina-del-fado/

[68] Grândola, vila morena Terra da fraternidade O povo é quem mais ordena Dentro de ti, ó cidade Dentro de ti, ó cidade O povo é quem mais ordena Terra da fraternidade Grândola, vila morena.

Em cada esquina um amigo Em cada rosto igualdade Grândola, vila morena Terra da fraternidade Terra da fraternidade Grândola, vila morena Em cada rosto igualdade O povo é quem mais ordena.

À sombra duma azinheira Que já não sabia a idade Jurei ter por companheira Grândola a tua vontade Grândola a tua vontade Jurei ter por companheira À sombra duma azinheira Que já não sabia a idade.

[69] https://www.antiwarsongs.org/canzone.php?id=229&lang=it

[70] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

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[73] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Amalia-da-Piedade-Rebordao-Rodrigues

[74] https://www.portugalresident.com/amalia-da-piedade-rebordao-rodrigues-the-queen-of-fado/

[75] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Amalia-da-Piedade-Rebordao-Rodrigues

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[77] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[78] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

[79] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[80] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[81] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[82] https://www.barbadillo.it/97498-il-fado-di-amalia-rodrigues-la-voce-che-canto-il-portogallo-nel-mondo/

[83] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[84] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[85] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Amalia-da-Piedade-Rebordao-Rodrigues

[86] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[87] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[88] https://giornaledellospettacolo.globalist.it/musica/2019/09/30/amalia-rodrigues-icona-del-fado-che-non-si-oppose-ne-fu-con-il-regime/

[89] https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/vor-100-jahren-geboren-amalia-rodrigues-die-koenigin-des-100.html

[90] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[91] https://www.britannica.com/biography/Amalia-da-Piedade-Rebordao-Rodrigues

[92] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[93] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

[94] https://lisbona.italiani.it/amalia-rodrigues/?cn-reloaded=1

[95] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[96] https://www.p55.art/en/blogs/p55-magazine/7-factos-pouco-conhecidos-sobre-amalia-rodrigues

[97] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[98] https://giornaledellospettacolo.globalist.it/musica/2019/09/30/amalia-rodrigues-icona-del-fado-che-non-si-oppose-ne-fu-con-il-regime/

[99] https://vitaminevaganti.com/2021/07/03/amalia-rodrigues-la-regina-del-fado/

[100] Com que voz chorarei meu triste fado, Que em tão dura paixão me sepultou? Que amor não seja a dor que me deixou O tempo, de meu bem desenganado.

Mas chorar não se estima neste estado Aonde suspirar nunca aproveitou. Triste quero viver, pois se mudou Em tristeza a alegria do passado.

[Assim a vida passo descontente, Ao som nesta prisão do grilhão duro Que lastima ao pé que a sofre e sente.] De tanto mal, a causa é amor puro, Devido a quem de mim tenho ausente, Por quem a vida e bens dela aventuro.

[101] https://www.barbadillo.it/97498-il-fado-di-amalia-rodrigues-la-voce-che-canto-il-portogallo-nel-mondo/

[102] https://www.barbadillo.it/97498-il-fado-di-amalia-rodrigues-la-voce-che-canto-il-portogallo-nel-mondo/

[103] https://www.journal21.ch/artikel/vor-20-jahren-starb-die-unsterbliche

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