8 February 2021 in Dossier The New Cold War, Espionage


April 14, 2007: In front of the mausoleum in memory of the father of the Homeland, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the Turkish people take to the streets to demand secularism, freedom, democracy, peace, progress and prosperity. Then, the people protests against the corrupt and incompetent regime of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan which offers misery, corruption, religious fundamentalism, violent suppression of all freedoms and genocide against ethnic minorities. There are hundreds of thousands of people who peacefully demand a new Turkey and only get violence and persecution in reverse. According to the national press, the demonstrators were more than a million and a half people[1].

Since then, the regime’s strategy has been clear: to suppress any protest, criticism, bad mood, newspaper or blog, anyone who is able to organize a new crowd to show the world what Turkey is today. As Erdoğan realized that there were no protest leaders, but rather widespread desperation, urging individuals to desperately cry out for help[2] – possibly to a blind and opportunistic Western world – the strategy has been refined and a new individual persecution operation implemented. Something never seen before that overcomes the bureaucratic repression of the Nazis because it uses technology that Adolf Hitler and his hierarchies never had at their disposal.

The operation consists of eavesdropping on all cell phones in Turkey, spying on their contacts, reading the message exchanges, inserting false data and conversations to identify disgruntled people and creating on their devices false evidence of their participation in a terrorist plot[3]. An operation of cynicism and brutality, both physical and psychological, which goes far beyond the nightmares George Orwell recounted in his novels on the social apocalypse. As Erdoğan realized that this would not be enough, the dictator widened the hearing and the falsification of communications abroad, in countries like Greece, Australia or Germany, where thousands of Turks who fled their homeland, live[4].

The nightmare of total electronic control

Hakan Fidan (left), Bayrat Albarak (center) and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (right), directors of the telematic terror unleashed by the Ankara government[5]

The operation is led by Hakan Fidan, a close friend of Erdoğan and head of the Turkish intelligence service (MIT – Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı): he is a sergeant who, after meeting the future dictator, followed his career as a leader security then gradually reached a framework of military espionage, to the point that in November 2020, following the resignation of Erdoğan’s son-in-law, Berat Albayrak[6] (who financed ISIS as part of its cooperation with the Iraq[7], as well as his participation in the scandal of the manipulation of the results of the Turkish Football League got into trouble[8]), he became the main candidate for the office of the new Minister of Finance[9].

Albayrak was not chosen for his skills in economics, but because he is the coordinator of a whole telematic control project, for which the regime, after having trained a million state hackers, will control all economic transactions of every business and every citizen[10]: officially to prevent tax evasion. The fact that Hakan Fidan has been at the head of this new ministry since January 2021 makes everything clear and simple.

Erdoğan has since transformed the Prime Minister’s office into a registered government agency[11] that controls certain Turkish consulates abroad – such as Atlanta, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Washington DC (USA), Burnaby (Canada) and Rabat (Morocco)[12] – and of course MIT too[13]. In each of these agencies, Hakan Fidan plays the role of executive director[14]. Maybe because MIT is not only active in Turkey, but all over the world …

On January 19, 2014, the Turkish gendarmerie blocked two trucks bound for Syria that were full of weapons[15] – weapons intended to aid the Caliphate Army (ISIS)[16] carried by MIT agents[17]. Erdoğan initially claimed that it was humanitarian aid[18], but some journalists managed to film the truck and the lie was discovered. Result: the 13 gendarmes who stopped the trucks were sentenced to long prison terms[19]; The investigating judges were dismissed from their functions and charged[20]; journalists involved in recording or publishing the information were sentenced to five years in prison[21]. Police have been given new orders: never stop MIT vehicles from going overseas.

One of MIT’s tasks is to fight the Hizmet sect and its preacher Fethullah Gülen (tapping phones and the internet, stalking, kidnapping, torturing, murdering[22]) in Turkey and abroad[23]. However, MIT’s main task is to fight opponents outside the country. Around 500 MIT officials and over 6,000 informants are active in Germany – an even larger and more powerful structure than STASI during the GDR era[24] – whose purpose is not only to observe and report Turkish citizens who emigrated to Europe, but also to intervene physically[25].

One of MIT’s goals is to intercept communications to create fictitious evidence against critics of the Ankara regime and to justify their kidnapping and torture[26]. A strategy that MIT is also pursuing in several other countries of the world – for example in Austria[27], Belgium[28], Czech Republic[29], France[30], Greece[31], Kosovo[32], Lithuania[33], Moldova[34], Norway[35], Serbia[36], Sweden[37], Switzerland[38], Ukraine[39], United Kingdom[40], Australia[41], Egypt[42], Gabon[43], Kenya[44], Libya[45], Sudan[46], United States[47], Armenia[48], Azerbaijan[49], Georgia[50], Iraq[51], Malaysia[52], Mongolia[53], Pakistan[54] and Syria, where the Turkish government fights with its own army and supports ISIS[55].

German technology for Erdoğan’s torturer

How FinFisher GmbH’s FishSpy app works in Munich – the beating heart of MIT’s Turkish spy system[56]

The complex system of monitoring, hacking, interception and tampering necessary to monitor millions of people is no toy. NGOs from all over Europe are researching who developed such technology and found it in Germany – it is called FinSpy and is produced by three companies of the Gamma International group: FinFisher GmbH Munich, FinFisher Labs GmbH Munich and Elaman GmbH Munich. Four organizations were able to prove it to the German courts[57]: Reporters Without Borders in Berlin (active throughout Europe, mainly concerned with press freedom[58]), GFF Gesellschaft für Freiheitsrechte in Berlin (very active in monitoring illegal activities of the BND and other German secret services[59]), Netzpolitik.org in Berlin (an online newspaper[60]) and the European Center for the Constitution and Human Rights in Berlin[61].

The Munich public prosecutor’s office launches a criminal investigation based on the evidence presented by these NGOs: the aforementioned Bavarian companies have violated the foreign trade law on at least six points[62] and have not only sold FinSpy to Turkey, but also to the governments of many other countries, including Bahrain, Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela[63] – all countries which raise serious concerns about the democratic nature of the political system.

The investigation revealed that these three companies were only originally one, Gamma International UK Ltd. Winchester, against whom an investigation opened in 2013 by the British judicial authorities was blocked[64], which would have put the company on the OECD blacklist at the end of 2016[65] – a measure which prohibits anyone in the world from doing business with the group industrial.

The British investigation was limited to the analysis of the sale of FinSpy to Bahrain, while the German investigation, accompanied by a large number of testimonies from victims of the terror of the Erdoğan regime in Turkey and the abroad, goes much further and finds that FinSpy has been sold illegally in 36 countries[66], there are huge data centers in 11 countries[67], so it is now suspected that there are many more crimes hidden behind known facts[68]. This is why the Munich prosecutor’s office ordered a search of the premises of the Bavarian capital, but also of the Romanian branch of the Gamma International group, in October 2020[69].

It is almost impossible to defend against FinSpy: the malware installs with fake updates disguised as official, via emails with fake attachments or through security holes in software – like Avira[70] or iTunes from Apple – and then through the bogus platforms of the major search engines, Mac and Linux installations[71], email programs, social networks, websites for online shopping[72]. Where Gamma International’s malware fails, that of David Vincenzetti’s[73] hacking team[74] is there. But this company is no longer there, Gamma has surpassed it, its founders are spread over many small companies[75].

Who is behind the Chinese Boxen?

In 2015, the Citizen Lab Institute in Toronto had identified 35 countries that illegally used the applications of the Gamma / FinFisher group[76]

The investigation by the Munich prosecutor’s office leaves a slightly bitter taste in the mouth: how is it possible that a complaint from four NGOs was necessary for investigation? It makes sense that the suspicion of hypocrisy arises, especially considering that the German Secret Service (BND) awarded Stephan Oelkers of Gamma International the Big Brother Awards in 2012, because Gamma was “the world’s best computer systems intrusion company. and installation of surveillance software (…) Gamma offers its services on its website – although the development and distribution of this type of spyware is prohibited by German criminal law (Par. 282c StGB). However, this only applies to private customers, not sales to domestic authorities or the secret police of a foreign dictatorship. This is the reason why the Munich public prosecutor’s office refused to initiate criminal proceedings against Gamma[77]. In short: everyone knew it all, but eight years ago the Munich prosecutor thought it was a trifle as long as this monstrous technology was being used by dictatorships to oppress their own people.

To be precise, we know a lot about the illegal activities of this group since 1973 (when computers were toys and espionage involved infiltrating shady men into secret rooms using a document microfilming device. banned) of people scattered in the English countryside, in the port of Hamburg, in the Bavarian capital or in the slums of Cape Town. The story begins with a cable that the US Embassy in Bonn sent to federal authorities – a message reporting the suspicious activities of Hamburg-based Dutch electronics retailer Peter Kluever[78].

The CIA decides to invest in this man, as does the German army. In 1981, his two companies PK Electronics and PKI Electronic Intelligence GmbH already had contracts with the US government. In 1983, the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Abdullah Ibn Nasir IBn Abd al-Asis Al Sa’ud, visited Hamburg and the German generals showed him the effects of the use of Kluever technology on the efficiency and cadence of Leopard tanks fired – which the government of Moved Riyadh to acquire this technology[79].

In 1987, Oelkers flew to Beijing for a demonstration of its new chips and delighted the Chinese generals who have become part of its clientele[80]. As part of the agreements signed with the United States, from 1985, Kluever sold very modern American spy technology (developed by the Ocean Applied Research Corporation in San Diego[81] and distributed by the CompuDyne Corporation group in Pennsylvania[82]) Muhammar Ghaddafi in Libya, Hafiz Al-Assad in Syria, Haji Mohammad Suharto in Indonesia – the three presidents use it to intercept phone calls and radio broadcasts from opponents, foreign armies and rebel groups[83].

As he grew older, Kluever sold his company (the PK Electronics Group in Hamburg) to two engineers, the German Stephan Oelkers and the Englishman William Louthean Nelson. The latter had started running the Beijing office in 1985 and had established his own company, Personal Protection Products Ltd. Hong Kong[84] in 1992, which until 1994, through its subsidiary in Hull[85], sold listening devices used by the British secret services to fight the IRA in Ulster[86]. When Kluever retires, PK Electronics will be passed on to William Nelson and his Louthean son John Alexander Nelson, the founders of the Gamma International Group[87].

The chart of the investments of the Gamma International Group as well as of associated persons and companies – © IBI World Ltd. London

A new era is beginning in which the old wiretapping will soon be overcome and forgotten. The young Louthean begins to work with Niels Jørgen Tobiasen and his two companies: The CBRN Team Ltd. London[88] and The Phoenix Hazard Training Ltd. Darlington[89]. It is an industrial operation that arose out of a contract to supply chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons to Uganda[90] which was negotiated with a member of the government, Ananias Tumukunde, who had accepted a bribe of £ 40,000[91]. An operation that ended with the arrest of Tumukunde in Kampala and Tobiasen in London in July 2007[92].

During these years, Louthean Nelson also tried to facilitate a collaboration with the hacking team of David Vincenzetti: with one of the best hackers of the Milan group, Alberto Pelliccione, Nelson tried after a while to find a system. to hack Nokia devices – but Pelliccione changes his mind when he finds out Nelson has started delivering weapons to countries affected by international sanctions through a company that has now been liquidated, Cyan Engineering Services SAL Beirut[93]. Something that Pelliccione wants nothing to do with.

Perhaps even more surprising is the next business: Nelson founds Elaman and relocates some activities to Switzerland[94] because he is once again doing business with his father’s former partner, Stephan Oelkers. Oelkers convinced Nelson to move his operations center from Hamburg to Munich and to accept a new partner, Holger Günther Rumscheidt. This should work with the Austrian secret service[95] and attempt to take the Bad Aibling station back from the NSA (American Military Intelligence)[96].

It is an imposing and extremely symbolic temptation: the Bad Aibling interception station was born in 1936 as a military airport and radar center of the Luftwaffe, and at the end of the war, the American army converted it into a camp transit for released prisoners of war and victims of National Socialist concentration camps. A very famous concentration camp that the writers Günter Grass and Joseph Ratzinger (the future Pope Benedict XVI) passed through[97]. From 1952 until the closure, requested by the European Union in 2001 and carried out in 2004 (officially, since the facility was still in operation in 2013[98]), the NSA of Bad Aibling assembled its Echelon systems[99] to intercept telephone communications of the entire planet[100].

The takeover of the NSA station would have been the dedication of Nelson and his employees to a company of global significance and almost unlimited power. Negotiations were not over when FinFisher started selling its FinSpy to Turkey and the world began to see the danger. After the research in Munich, Switzerland and Romania, Nelson began to liquidate all the companies as quickly as possible: some of them (Computplus Ltd., G2 Systems Ltd., Gamma 2000 Ltd., Gamma 2000 Waste Management Ltd., Gamma International (UK) Ltd.) were liquidated in early February 2021 at the time of writing[101].

There is no turning back

April 14, 2007: Over a million peaceful citizens protest against the abolition of freedom and against a regime that has turned their homeland into a hell of oppression, violence and misery. An exciting scene of humanity that could hardly be repeated

However, that does not change the substance of things. Today, February 2021, the government and its intelligence agencies in at least 40 countries around the world, the vast majority of which are ruled by dictatorships, have in their hands software that not only goes beyond doomsday scenarios. described by George Orwell, but also from “Brazil” by Terry Gilliam: Now, a regime no longer needs to discover that someone is preparing a plot to isolate, torture, condemn and exterminate them. The state can create evidence with the click of a computer, using software that in a thousandth of a second will doom each one of us and implicate each of our loved ones in our destruction.

In a society where the alienation of the individual from the common context has already reached worrying proportions, the software developed and sold by a small handful of criminals totally unknown to the public has enabled humanity to embark on a path of no return: one where there is nothing more true and verifiable in which each of us must doubt who is around us, and even (and even more) ourselves.

The weakness and superficiality with which Western governments (especially the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom) have allowed this software to be distributed across the planet for purely selfish calculations is unforgivable and the sign that 75 years after the end of WWII, 30 years after the end of the cold war, and the fear of nuclear conflict when nature rebels against the foolish way we are destroying it, people have crossed the line ultimate – those in which the enemy who kills does not come from outside, but from within – and is inexorable.


[1] https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/65-in-yuzbinleri-6335051

[2] http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6554851.stm ; https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/laik-turkiye-icin-caglayan-a-6426626 ; https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/3-miting-3-mesaj-6462629 ; https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/izmir-rekor-bekliyor-6495436

[3] https://www.dw.com/en/turkey-used-german-spy-software-on-opposition-politicians-and-activists/a-43787769

[4] https://atalayar.com/en/content/turkish-spy-networks-control-opponents ; https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-39416954

[5] https://www.birgun.net/haber/iddia-pelikancilar-hakan-fidan-gitsin-diyor-283382

[6] https://www.trthaber.com/haber/gundem/iletisim-baskanligi-berat-albayrakin-gorevden-af-talebi-kabul-edilmistir-529559.html

[7] https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/russia-accuses-president-erdogan-s-son-law-being-linked-isis-oil-trade-a6761436.html ; https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2016/09/turkey-redhackers-daunt-the-erdogan-family.html ; https://thepressproject.gr/exclusive-wikileaks-documents-relations-erdogan-isis-oil-smuggling/

[8] https://www.duvarenglish.com/sport/2020/02/10/politics-in-stadiums-fenerbahce-fans-urge-minister-albayrak-to-keep-hands-off-football ; https://odatv4.com/fenerbahceliler-damata-karsi-ayaga-kalkti-02022031.html

[9] Intelligence Online, “Hakan Fidan close to ministerial promotion”, see in 2020.11.18 Hakan Fidan Minister

[10] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-launches-project-to-train-1-million-software-developers-154081

[11] Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanları

[12] 2017.04.13 Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanları

[13] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mill%C3%AE_%C4%B0stihbarat_Te%C5%9Fkil%C3%A2t%C4%B1#Leitung

[14] Hakan Fidan on Nexis, pages 57-60

[15] https://t24.com.tr/haber/adanada-3-tir-durduruldu-arama-yapiliyor,248707

[16] 1000 colpi di mortaio, 1000 colpi di artiglieria, 50’000 fucili d’assalto e 30’000 munizioni per mitragliatrice – see in https://web.archive.org/web/20150529062123/http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/turkiye/287071/iste_Erdogan_in_yok_dedigi_silahlar.html ; https://web.archive.org/web/20150529223636/http://www.aktifhaber.com/devlet-sirri-denilen-mit-tirlari-ile-ilgili-tapeler-1053377h.htm#

[17] https://www.haber7.com/guncel/haber/1121773-mit-tirlari-neden-durduruldu ; https://web.archive.org/web/20150529062123/http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/turkiye/287071/iste_Erdogan_in_yok_dedigi_silahlar.html

[18] http://www.aljazeera.com.tr/haber/mit-tirlari-boyle-durduruldu

[19] https://bianet.org/bianet/insan-haklari/155519-tir-lari-durdurmakla-suclanan-13-askere-muebbet-istendi

[20] https://www.milliyet.com.tr/gundem/mit-tirlari-olayinda-yeni-gelisme-5-savci-gorevden-uzaklastirildi-1999064

[21] http://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/erdogandan-canli-yayinda-can-dundara-tehdit-288885

[22] https://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/ausland/europa/tuerkei/tuerkei-kampf-gegen-die-soldaten-des-lichts-12715816.html?printPagedArticle=true#pageIndex_3 ; https://taz.de/Wie-Guelen-zum-Staatsfeind-Nr-1-wurde/!5323191/ ; https://www.sabah.com.tr/gundem/2021/02/03/son-dakika-istihbarattaki-fetocu-generalden-bomba-itiraflar-tegmen-rutbemi-fetullah-gulen-takti ; https://tr.sputniknews.com/turkiye/202001211041211454-sozcu-ilker-basbugu-cezaevine-attiran-feto-mektubunu-acikliyoruz/ ; https://www.zdf.de/politik/frontal-21/die-verschleppten-100.html

[23] https://www.genios.de/presse-archiv/artikel/FAZ/20171111/jagd-auf-die-guelenisten/FR1201711115279571.html

[24] https://www.nadir.org/nadir/initiativ/isku/hintergrund/geheimdienste/geheim994.htm ; https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/tuerkischer-geheimdienst-liess-erdogan-gegner-in-deutschland-ausspionieren/12027820.html

[25] https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article157778863/Erdogans-Agenten-bedrohen-Tuerken-in-Deutschland.html

[26] https://www.zdf.de/politik/frontal-21/die-verschleppten-100.htmlhttps://www.derstandard.at/story/1397522175727/geheimdienst-staat-tuerkei

[27] https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2020/09/turkey-austria-spy-nehammer-kurdish-clashes-protests-vienna.html ; https://www.reuters.com/article/austria-turkey-espionage-int-idUSKBN25S4R5 ; https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/13/world/europe/turkey-austria-erdogan-assassin.html

[28] https://www.euractiv.com/section/global-europe/news/flemish-minister-turkish-sponosred-mosque-is-nest-of-spies/ ; https://www.dailysabah.com/war-on-terror/2017/07/06/influenced-by-gulenists-belgium-targets-turkish-mosques-fighting-extremism

[29] https://nordicmonitor.com/2020/08/erdogan-critics-listed-by-turkish-embassy-in-prague-were-included-in-bogus-terrorism-probe/

[30] https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/turkey-murder-london-unsolved-mehmet-kaygisiz-government-security-services-agents-court-documents-a7332461.html

[31] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turk-greek-ties-strained-by-arson-row-10324 ; https://www.reuters.com/article/us-greece-germany-spying/greek-police-arrest-german-on-suspicion-of-spying-idUSBRE97208820130803 ; https://www.kathimerini.gr/society/896001/istories-me-kataskopoys-sto-aigaio/ ; https://www.larissanet.gr/2019/06/21/dikazetai-sti-rodo-kataskopos-tis-tourkias/ ; https://ahvalnews.com/mit/turkish-intelligence-recruits-eu-retirees-spy-greece ; https://nordicmonitor.com/2020/04/turkish-intelligence-operations-targeting-critics-in-greece-exposed-in-secret-documents/ ; https://intelnews.org/2016/12/09/01-2023/ ; https://nordicmonitor.com/2020/08/more-secret-documents-confirming-vast-turkish-espionage-activities-in-greece-uncovered/ ; https://www.skai.gr/news/greece/dyo-syllipseis-ellinon-gia-kataskopeia-sti-rodo

[32] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-kosovo-security-turkey-idUSKBN1H70CC

[33] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/opinion/murat-yetkin/turkish-intelligence-unveils-secret-codes-used-before-coup-attempt-103843

[34] https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2018/09/turkish-teachers-detained-moldova-gulen.html ; https://balkaninsight.com/2018/09/06/six-turkish-professors-detained-by-moldovan-secret-services-09-06-2018/

[35] https://turkeypurge.com/turkey-spying-imams-active-also-in-norway ; https://stockholmcf.org/turkeys-autocratic-president-erdogans-spying-profiling-expands-in-norway/

[36] https://kafila.org/www-matthewaid-com/

[37] https://stockholmcf.org/report-sweden-launches-espionage-probe-into-turkish-govt-representatives/

[38] https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/politics/undiplomatic_swiss-eye-alleged-turkish-kidnapping-attempt/43973170 ; https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/swiss-foreign-minister-warns-turkey-against-illegal-spying-111199 ; https://www.dailysabah.com/eu-affairs/2017/05/01/as-anti-turkish-politics-grip-europe-turkish-swiss-policeman-arrested

[39] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-intelligence-brings-key-feto-suspect-from-ukraine-to-turkey-134608

[40] https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/turkey-murder-london-unsolved-mehmet-kaygisiz-government-security-services-agents-court-documents-a7332461.html

[41] https://www.meforum.org/60976/turkish-spy-agency-mit-intelligence-gathering-australia

[42] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-egypt-court/egypt-detains-29-people-on-suspicion-of-espionage-for-turkey-idUSKBN1DM1AN ; https://www.egypttoday.com/Article/1/33764/In-Pictures-Egypt-foils-Turkish-espionage-attempt

[43] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-intelligence-agency-brings-three-feto-members-from-gabon-to-turkey-130050

[44] https://www.trtworld.com/turkey/turkish-intelligence-agency-rescues-a-kidnapped-italian-citizen-in-kenya-36192

[45] https://www.middleeastmonitor.com/20190807-libyan-national-army-turkish-intelligence-is-operating-in-tripoli/

[46] https://www.dailysabah.com/war-on-terror/2017/11/27/senior-feto-figure-captured-by-turkish-intelligence-in-sudan/amp

[47] https://nordicmonitor.com/2019/07/turkish-diplomats-have-extensively-spied-on-critics-in-the-united-states/

[48] https://www.rferl.org/a/1101683.html

[49] https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-intel-returns-wanted-feto-from-azerbaijan-140108

[50] https://nordicmonitor.com/2019/06/turkish-diplomats-spy-on-erdogan-critics-in-georgia-secret-document-reveals/

[51] https://www.dailysabah.com/war-on-terror/2019/04/22/4-pkk-terrorists-brought-to-turkey-from-iraq-in-operation-by-turkish-intelligence ; https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/pkk-confirms-capture-two-turkish-spies-iraq ; https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2017/08/29/533306/PKK-Turkish-officers-spying-Iraq ; https://www.sabah.com.tr/gundem/2019/07/07/son-dakika-teror-orgutu-pkkkcknin-sozde-baskanlik-konseyi-uyesi-diyar-garip-muhammed-etkisiz-hale-getirildi ; https://www.thedefensepost.com/2018/08/15/turkey-airstrike-pkk-sinjar-iraq/ ; https://menafn.com/1098975780/Turkish-warplanes-neutralize-4-PKK-terrorists-In-Iraq ; https://www.dailysabah.com/war-on-terror/2019/09/16/3-pkk-terrorists-neutralized-by-turkish-jets-in-northern-iraq ; https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-neutralizes-senior-female-ypg-pkk-terrorist-150730

[52] https://stockholmcf.org/cellmate-teacher-abducted-by-turkeys-mit-from-malaysia-subjected-to-torture-in-ankara/ ; https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-intelligences-captures-feto-suspect-in-malaysia-146188

[53] https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mongolia-kidnapping-turkey-idUSKBN1KI03N

[54] https://indianexpress.com/article/pakistan/pakistan-admits-they-secretly-deported-turkish-family-wanted-by-erdogan-govt-4895423/lite/

[55] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_involvement_in_the_Syrian_civil_war

[56] https://securityaffairs.co/wordpress/41169/breaking-news/finfisher-spyware-new-customers.html

[57] https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/german-prosecutor-to-investigate-finfisher-for-allegedly-selling-spyware-used-against-journalists-and-activists-in-turkey-without-license/ ; https://www.ecchr.eu/en/press-release/german-prosecutor-opens-criminal-investiation-into-finfisher-for-selling-spyware-to-turkey-without-license/

[58] https://www.reporter-ohne-grenzen.de/

[59] https://freiheitsrechte.org/

[60] https://netzpolitik.org/

[61] https://www.ecchr.eu/en/about-us/?L=2

[62] https://cdn.netzpolitik.org/wp-upload/2019/09/2019-07-05_FinFisher_Criminal-Complaint_ENG.pdf, pages 4-5

[63] https://cdn.netzpolitik.org/wp-upload/2019/09/2019-07-05_FinFisher_Criminal-Complaint_ENG.pdf, pages 6-7, page 12

[64] https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/847361/UK-NCP-initial-complaint-privacy-international-and-others-against-gamma-international-uk-ltd.pdf ; https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/847362/UK-NCP-Final-statement-complaint-Privacy-International-Gamma-International-UK-Ltd.pdf ; https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/847364/uk-ncp-follow-up-statement-privacy-international-gamma-international.pdf

[65] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/privacy-international-complaint-to-uk-ncp-about-gamma-international-uk-ltd

[66] https://www.ibtimes.com/finfisher-malicious-spyware-disguised-mozilla-firefox-discovered-36-countries-1233177

[67] https://www.scmagazine.com/home/security-news/finfisher-command-and-control-hubs-turn-up-in-11-new-countries/ ; 2013.04.01 SC Magazine on FinFisher

[68] https://www.dw.com/en/german-prosecutors-investigate-spyware-maker-finfisher/a-50293812

[69] https://netzpolitik.org/2020/unsere-strafanzeige-razzia-bei-staatstrojaner-firma-finfisher-in-muenchen/

[70] https://www.glistatigenerali.com/intelligence_privacy/avira-lantivirus-comprato-dai-servizi-segreti-del-golfo-persico/ ; https://blogs.mediapart.fr/paolo-fusi/blog/260920/le-hacker-militaire-qui-achete-avira

[71] https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/research/2020/09/german-made-finspy-spyware-found-in-egypt-and-mac-and-linux-versions-revealed/

[72] https://www.wsj.com/articles/BL-DGB-23568 ; https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/apple/8912714/Apple-iTunes-flaw-allowed-government-spying-for-3-years.html ; https://krebsonsecurity.com/2011/11/apple-took-3-years-to-fix-finfisher-trojan-hole/ ; https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-07-25/cyber-attacks-on-activists-traced-to-finfisher-spyware-of-gamma

[73] 2016.04.26 David Kushner on David Vincenzetti

[74] https://www.glistatigenerali.com/internet-tech/hacking-team-riguarda-tutti-noi-le-nostre-liberta-la-nostra-costituzione/ ; https://www.glistatigenerali.com/app-software_intelligence/david-vincenzetti-la-spia-che-serve-i-dittatori/

[75] https://www.lastampa.it/tecnologia/2015/07/12/news/segreti-concorrenza-e-fobie-tutti-i-punti-deboli-di-hacking-team-1.35241096

[76] https://citizenlab.ca/2015/10/mapping-finfishers-continuing-proliferation/

[77] https://bigbrotherawards.de/en/2012/technology-gamma-international

[78] https://www.burojansen.nl/pdf/gammagrouploutheannelsonwapenhandelaarspursang.pdf ; https://slideum.com/doc/9973831/gehele-observant-%2369–januari-2017-politie-mercenaries

[79] https://www.burojansen.nl/politie/gamma-group-louthean-nelson-arms-dealers-to-the-core-english-translation-of-article-from-observant-69/

[80] 1987.03.07 PK Electronics in China

[81] U.S. Department of Commerce, Industry and Trade Administration, “Commercial News USA”, U.S. Foreign Commercial Service, Washington DC, 1979, page 38

[82] https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/1/CompuDyne-Corporation.html

[83] https://www.burojansen.nl/politie/gamma-group-louthean-nelson-arms-dealers-to-the-core-english-translation-of-article-from-observant-69/

[84] https://opencorporates.com/companies/hk/0475615

[85] https://opencorporates.com/companies/gb/02088610

[86] https://www.burojansen.nl/politie/gamma-group-louthean-nelson-arms-dealers-to-the-core-english-translation-of-article-from-observant-69/

[87] https://opencorporates.com/companies/gb/01958854

[88] https://opencorporates.com/companies/gb/05318642

[89] https://opencorporates.com/companies/gb/06591222

[90] https://www.burojansen.nl/politie/gamma-group-louthean-nelson-arms-dealers-to-the-core-english-translation-of-article-from-observant-69/

[91] https://allafrica.com/stories/200809010266.html

[92] https://www.nti.org/gsn/article/danish-man-charged-with-wmd-smuggling/

[93] https://www.burojansen.nl/politie/gamma-group-louthean-nelson-arms-dealers-to-the-core-english-translation-of-article-from-observant-69/

[94] Elaman AG Malans

[95] Holger Günther Rumscheidt Kirchberg in Tirol

[96] https://www.burojansen.nl/politie/gamma-group-louthean-nelson-arms-dealers-to-the-core-english-translation-of-article-from-observant-69/

[97] https://www.webcitation.org/5k8f6XouC?url=http://www.zianet.com/jpage/Bad%20Aibling%20Station%20-%20A%20Legacy%20of%20Excellence.pdf ; https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Bad_Aibling_Station ; Gottfried Mayr, “Das Kriegsgefangenenlager PWE No. 26: Bad Aibling 1945-1946 : Massenschicksal – Einzelschicksale“, Bad Aibling: Hist. Verein Bad Aibling und Umgebung, Bald Aibling 2002

[98] https://www.burojansen.nl/politie/gamma-group-louthean-nelson-arms-dealers-to-the-core-english-translation-of-article-from-observant-69/

[99] James Bamford, “Body of secrets: Anatomy of the ultra-secret NSA”, Anchor Books, New York, 2002

[100] https://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+REPORT+A5-2001-0264+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN


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